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Table 1 Characteristics of previous studies that employed the verification phase to confirm V̇O2max attained during an incremental test to exhaustion

From: The Maximal Oxygen Uptake Verification Phase: a Light at the End of the Tunnel?

Reference Incremental phase Recovery phase Verification phase Verification during the same session? V̇O2max during incremental phase (ml min−1) V̇O2max during verification phase (ml min−1)
Niemelä et al. [16] Continuous test on a cycle ergometer (1 min stages) NA Supramaximal workload based on highest V̇O2 obtained during incremental test (NSW) Separate day 2950 (590) 3050 (490)
Stachenfeld et al. [67] Continuous test on a cycle ergometer (1 min stages) NA 115% of peak workload attained during incremental phase. If necessary, a second phase at 125% was performed (NSW). Separate day 3280 (−) 3350 (920)
Day et al. [28] Ramp incremental test on a cycle ergometer NA 90% of the peak power output attained in the incremental test Separate day 3640 (700) 3640 (700)
Midgley et al. [35] Continuous test on a treadmill (1 min stages) 10 min active 0.5 km/h higher than the last incremental stage completed Yes 4041 (455) 3994 (447)
Exact same test 10 min active Exact same test Yes 4010 (379) 4029 (432)
Rossiter et al. [29] Ramp incremental test on a cycle ergometer. 5 min active 95% of the peak power output attained in the incremental test. Yes 4105 (478) 4117 (528)
Ramp incremental test on a cycle ergometer. 5 min active 105% of the peak power output attained in the incremental test. Yes 4149 (502) 4090 (446)
Midgley et al. [37] Continuous test on a treadmill. (1 min stages). 5 min passive 0.5 km/h higher than the last incremental stage completed. Yes 4093 (538) 4068 (531)
Discontinuous test on a treadmill (2 min stages and 30 s between) 5 min passive 1 km/h higher than the last incremental stage completed. Yes 4096 (516) 4075 (522)
Discontinuous test on a treadmill (3 min stages and 30 s between) 5 min passive 1 km/h higher than the last incremental stage completed Yes 3980 (488) 4071 (531)
Hawkins et al. [32] Continuous test on a treadmill (2 min stages) NA Work load correspondent to ≥ 130% V̇O2max Separate day 63.3 (6.3) ml kg−1 min−1 62.9 (6.2) ml kg−1 min−1
Foster et al. [51] Continuous test on a cycle ergometer (1 min stages) 1 min active 25 W higher than peak power output attained in the incremental test Yes 3950 (750) 4060 (750)
Continuous test on a treadmill (3 min stages) 3 min active 0.8 km/h (women) and 1.6 km/h (men) higher than the last incremental test stage completed Yes 4090 (970) 4030 (1160)
Poole et al. [17] Ramp incremental test on a cycle ergometer NA 105% of the peak power output attained in the incremental test Separate day 4030 (100) 3950 (110)
Astorino et al. [31] Ramp incremental test on a cycle ergometer NA 105% of the peak power output attained in the incremental test Separate day 2370 (690) 2290 (750)
Continuous test on a treadmill (20 s stages) 60–90 min passive 115% of the peak power output attained in the incremental test Yes 2670 (600) 2750 (760)
Midgley et al. [36] Continuous test on a cycle ergometer (1 min stages) 10 min passive One stage higher than the last stage attained in the incremental test (NSW) Yes 4054 (467) 3958 (381)
Continuous test on a treadmill (1 min stages) 10 min passive One stage higher than the last stage attained in the incremental test (NSW) Yes 3863 (394) 3915 (466)
Astorino and White [61] Continuous test on a cycle ergometer (1 min stages) 10 min active One stage higher than the last stage attained in the incremental test Yes 2900 (600) 2900 (600)
Wood et al. [68] Continuous test on a treadmill (1 min stages) 5–10 min passive 0.5 km/h within the last incremental stage completed (NSW) Yes 34.5 (7.4)ml kg−1 min−1 Not reported
Kirkeberg et al. [41] Continuous test on a treadmill (1 min stages) 3 min active Two stages lower than the last stage attained in the incremental test Yes 49.24 (5.31) ml kg−1 min−1 48.97 (5.95) ml kg−1 min−1
Exact same test 3 min active Two stages lower than the last stage attained in the incremental test Yes 48.90 (5.08) ml kg−1 min−1 47.45 (4.48) ml kg−1 min−1
Exact same test 3 min active Two stages lower than the last stage attained in the incremental test Yes 49.07 (4.70) ml kg−1 min−1 48.44 (5.02) ml kg−1 min−1
Scharhag-Rosenberger et al. [40] Discontinuous test on a treadmill (3 min stages and 20 s between) 10 min passive 110% of the velocity attained in the incremental test. If necessary, new verification phase at 115% was performed (NSW). Yes 3824 (988) 3722 (991)
Discontinuous test on a treadmill (3 min stages and 20 s between) 10 min passive 110% of the velocity attained in the incremental test. If necessary, new verification phase at 115% was performed (NSW). Separate day 3824 (988) 3752 (995)
Bowen et al. [64] Ramp incremental test on a cycle ergometer 5 min active 95% of the peak power output attained in the incremental test Yes 14.5 (3.0)ml kg−1 min−1 14.7 (3.1) ml kg−1 min−1
Beltrami et al. [69] Continuous test on a treadmill (1 min stages) 15 min passive/active One stage higher than the last stage attained in the incremental test (NSW) Yes 61.3 (7.8) ml kg−1 min−1 61.2 (5.5) ml kg−1 min−1
Continuous test on a treadmill (1 min stages) 15 min passive/active One stage higher than the last stage attained in the incremental test (NSW) Yes 61.2 (4.8) ml/kg/min 60.9 (3.5) ml kg−1 min−1
Leicht et al. [52] Wheelchair continuous test on a treadmill (1 min stages) 2 min passive + 5 min active 100% of the velocity attained in the incremental test. However, incline was increased by 0.6%. Yes 1574 (354) 1649 (393)
Wheelchair continuous test on a treadmill (1 min stages) 2 min passive + 5 min active 100% of the velocity attained in the incremental test. However, incline was increased by 0.6%. Yes 2470 (335) 2395 (335)
Continuous test on a treadmill (40 s stages). 2 min passive + 5 min active 100% of the velocity attained in the incremental test. However, incline was increased by 0.3%. Yes 3059 (627) 2978 (530)
Mier et al. [24] Continuous test on a treadmill (2 min stages). 10 min active One stage higher than the last stage attained in the incremental test (NSW) Yes 53.6 (5,6) 55.5 (5,6)
Dalleck et al. [50] Continuous test on a cycle ergometer (20 s stages for men, 30 s for women) 5 min active + 60 min passive 105% of the peak power output attained in the incremental test Yes 2329 (762) 2309 (760)
Saynor et al. [45] Ramp incremental test on a cycle ergometer 5 min active + 10 min passive 110% of the peak power output attained in the incremental test (NSW) Yes 1770 (570) Not reported
Sedgeman et al. [42] Continuous test on a cycle ergometer (1 min stages) 3 min active Two stages lower than the last stage attained in the incremental test Yes 49.81 (5.49) ml kg−1 min−1 49.93 (6.63) ml kg−1 min−1
Continuous test on a cycle ergometer (1 min stages) 3 min active 105% of the peak power output attained in the incremental test Yes 50.10 (6.83) ml kg−1 min−1 49.19 (6.74) ml kg−1 min−1
Nolan et al. [44] Continuous test on a treadmill (1 min stages) 20 min passive 105% of the work load achieved during the incremental test Yes 56.9 (9.6)ml kg−1 min−1 57.2 (9.0) ml kg−1 min−1
Continuous test on a treadmill (1 min stages) 60 min passive 105% of the work load achieved during the incremental test Yes 56.2 (9.0) ml kg−1 min−1 56.2 (9.1) ml kg−1 min−1
Continuous test on a treadmill (1 min stages) 20 min passive 115% of the work load achieved during the incremental test Yes 57.5 (9.2) ml kg−1 min−1 56.6 (9.6) ml kg−1 min−1
Continuous test on a treadmill (1 min stages) 60 min passive 115% of the work load achieved during the incremental test Yes 57.1 (8.4)ml kg−1 min−1 56.0 (9.6) ml kg−1 min−1
Straub et al. [48] Ramp incremental test on a cycle ergometer 10 min passive 110% of the velocity attained in the incremental test (NSW) Yes 3840 (730) 3840 (680)
Sawyer et al. [53] Ramp incremental test on a cycle ergometer 5–10 min active 100% of the peak power output attained in the incremental test. Yes 2290 (710) 2340 (670)
Scheadler and Devor [70] Continuous test on a treadmill (1 min stages) NA Supramaximal work load determined individually (~ 10.2% greater than V̇O2max; NSW). Separate day 64.9 (8.2)ml kg−1 min−1 Not reported
Colakoglu et al. [71] Continuous test on a cycle ergometer (4, 2 and 1 min stages) NA 100% of the work load achieved during the incremental test. If necessary, new verification phases at 105, 110 and 115% were performed (NSW). Separate day 4110 (690) 4560 (600)*
Taylor et al. [72] Continuous test on a treadmill (1 min stages) 15 min passive/active One stage higher than the last stage attained in the incremental test (NSW) Yes 4220 (1050) 3880 (880)
Continuous test on a treadmill (1 min stages) 15 min passive/active One stage higher than the last stage attained in the incremental test (NSW) Yes 4080 (860) 3880 (870)
Weatherwax et al. [43] Continuous test on a treadmill (15 s stages for men, 20 s for women) 20 min passive 0.48 km/h (women) and 0.64 km/h (men) higher than the last incremental test stage completed (NSW) Yes 3653 (656) 3621 (629)*
Bhammar et al. [49] Continuous test on a cycle ergometer (1 min stages) 15 min passive 105% of the work load achieved during the incremental test (NSW) Yes 1570 (270) 1710 (310)*
Exact same test 15 min passive Exact same test Yes 1840 (480) 1940 (470)*
  1. V̇O 2 oxygen uptake, V̇O 2max maximal oxygen uptake, NA non-applicable, NSW not square-wave (i.e. verification phase was multistage)
  2. *A significant difference (P < 0.05) between incremental phase and verification phase V̇O2max, as reported by the authors. Note: whenever possible, authors were contacted to provide unavailable data