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Table 7 Modulation of TLR2 and TLR4 after acute aerobic exercise

From: Aerobic but not Resistance Exercise Can Induce Inflammatory Pathways via Toll-Like 2 and 4: a Systematic Review

Authors Sample Disease Intensity and duration Post-exercise results
TLR Cytokine Other
Rosa et al. 2011 [40] Wistar rats No disease 70% VO2max, 50 min ↑TLR4   ↑MyD-88, ↑TRAF6, ↑NF-kBp65
Rodriguez-Miguelez et al. 2015 [39] Wistar rats No disease 16 m/min, 90 min/18 bouts/5 min/bout ↑TLR4 ↑TNF-α
↑IL α-1β
↑HIF-1α, ↑VEGF, ↑eNOS, ↑MPO.
Liao et al. 2010 [136] Sprague-Dawley rats No disease 25 m/min, 1–2 h ↓TLR4 ↑TNF-α ↑TNF-α, ↑NFkB, ↑p65, ↑ROS, ↑endotoxina
Zbinden-Foncea et al. 2012 [42] Mice No disease 70% of FCmax, two bouts of 60 min ↑TLR2, ↑TLR4   ↑NEFA, ↑p38MAPK, ↑JNK.
Tanaka et al. 2010 [138] Mice No disease 9 m/min to exhaustion, 1 acute bout ↔TLR4 ↓TNF-α  
Ortega et al. 2009 [140] Adults No disease 70% VO2 max,1 h    Hsp72-induced stimulation of neutrophil chemotaxis disappeared when TLR2 was blocked.
Lancaster et al. 2005 [133] Adults No disease 65% VO2max, 1.5 h ↓TLR4, ↓TLR2 ↓IL-6  
Booth et al. 2010 [35] Adults No disease 60 km distance in the cycle the fastest possible time. Heart rate (bpm) and power output (watts) were monitored ↑TLR2, ↑TLR4   ↓HLA.DR
Simpson et al. 2009 [135] Adults No disease 75% VO2max, 45 min ↓TLR4, ↓TLR2   ↓HLA.DR
Neubauer et al. 2013 [37] Adults No disease Borg 6–20, 10 km ↑TLR4 ↑IL-6
↔IL-1β
↑IL-10
↑IL-1ra
↑IRAK3, ↑creatin kinase 3 h after, ↑plasma myoglobin 3 h after, ↑neutrophil 3 h after
Oliveira and Gleeson 2010 [134] Adults No disease 75% VO2peak, 1.5 h ↓TLR4   TLR4 returned to basal levels within 4 h after exercise, ↔TLR2.
Radom-Aizik et al. 2014 [137] Adults No disease 82% VO2peak, 2-min bouts ↓TLR4 ↓TNF-α ↓CD36 e ↑EREG genes and ↑CXCR4
Light et al. 2009 [36] Adults Chronic fatigue syndrome 70% age-predicted maximal heart rate, 5–9 min ↑TLR4 ↑IL6
↑IL1β
↑IL-10
↑IL13
↑IL8
↑IL12
↑Pain ↑mental fatigue.
↑α2-A, ↑RNAm of β-2 receptor in leucocytes, ↑COMT RNAm
White et al. 2012 [118] Adults Multiple sclerosis (ME) and fibromyalgia (SDC) 70% of age-predicted maximal heart rate, 20 min ME: ↓TLR4
SDC: ↔TLR4
ME: after 8 h
↔IL-6
↑IL-10
SDC: after 48 h
↔IL-6
↑IL-10
↑Fatigue ↑pain, ↑adrenergic receptors.
Li and Geib 2013 [139] Adults and elderly No disease 1 h Tai Chi   ↑IL-13 ↓CD14+CD16+