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Table 6 Modulation of TLR2 and TLR4 after chronic aerobic exercise

From: Aerobic but not Resistance Exercise Can Induce Inflammatory Pathways via Toll-Like 2 and 4: a Systematic Review

Authors Sample Disease Frequency, intensity, and duration Post-exercise results
TLR Cytokine Other
Ma et al. 2013 [13] Wistar rats Cerebral ischemia 5 days/week, 12 m/min, 3 days–2 weeks ↓TLR4, ↓TLR2   ↓NFkB e ↓MyD88
Lira et al. 2010 [76] Wistar rats No disease 5 days/week, 15–25 m/min, 11 weeks ↓ TLR4 (TR group), ↑TLR4 (R group) TR group:
↔ TNF-α
↔IL-6
↔IL-10
TR group (trained) ↓NFkBp65.
OT group (overtrained) and R (resting overtrained):
↓performance decline, ↓testosterone, ↑corticosterone, ↑endotox.
↑IL-6, ↑IL-10, ↑NFkBp65
Fashi et al. 2015 [117] Wistar rats Pulmonary infection 5 days/week, mean speed of the group workload, 4 weeks ↓TLR4 ↓TNF-α ↓NF-kB (exe group+PM10)
Jun et al. 2014 [130] Sprague-Dawley rats Ovariectomized rats 5 days/week, 18–26 m/min, 16 weeks ↓TLR4 ↓TNF-α
↔IL-6
↓MCP-1 in adipose tissue (moderate trained group).
Holland et al. 2015 [132] Sprague-Dawley rats No disease 1/day, 30 m/min, 10 days ↔TLR4 ↓TNF-α ↔IL-6
↔IFNy
↔ IL10
Moderate training: ↔NFkB, ↔CCL2,
↔IL10, ↔NFkBp65
Zwagerman et al. 2010 [14] Sprague-Dawley rats Stroke 5 days/week, 30 m/min, 3 weeks ↓TLR4   ↓Cerebral infarction volume
Choi et al. 2014 [15] Sprague-Dawley rats Alzheimer’s disease 5 days/week, 2–8 m/min, 6 weeks ↓TLR4 ↓TNF-α ↓IL-1α ↓NF-kB, in the STZ-exe group.
↑Cognitive function
Zheng et al. 2015 [131] Adults (members of a university badminton club) No disease 3 days/week, no information, 26–32 days ↑TLR2, ↔TLR4, with or without microbial antigen stimulation ↑TNF-α
↑IL-6
with or without microbial antigen stimulation
 
Robinson et al. 2015 [115] Adults Pre-diabetes 1/day, 65–90% peak heart rate, 2 weeks ↓TLR4, ↓TLR2 ↔TNF-α ↔IL-6
↔IL-1β
↔ IL10
↓Fasting glucose in group MICT (moderate-intensity continuous training).
Nickel et al. 2011 [114] Adults (amateur marathon runners) Obesity Training documented with respect to intensity, duration, and kilometers run per week by a written individual protocol, 10 weeks ↑TLR2 in LNE group (lean-non-elite).
↑TLR4 (all groups).
↔TNF-α ↑oxLDL in LE (lean-elite); ↓oxLDL in ONE (obese-non-elite).
Nickel et al. 2012 [113] Adults (amateur marathon runners) Obesity Training documented with respect to intensity, duration, and kilometers run per week by a written individual protocol, 10 weeks ↔TLR2, ↔TLR4 ↑TNF-α (24 h post-marathon)
↑IL-6 and ↑IL-10 (immediately after the run)
↑BDCA-1, ↓BDCA2, ↓TLR7, ↑PCR, ↔oxLDL
Ghosh et al. 2015 [74] Adults and elderly No disease 3–4 days/week, 65–80% VO2max, 16 weeks ↑TLR4 (aged individuals)   In elderly: ↑NF-kBp65, ↑NF-kBp50, ↑pJNK, ↑endotoxin, ↔pERK, ↔p-p38, ↑insulin resistance.