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Table 1 Study characteristics of included articles investigating postural stability in single-leg stance

From: Single-Leg Assessment of Postural Stability After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Study Country Group Sample size Sex Age, years (mean ± SD/range) Time from:
1) Injury-test
2) Injury-surgery
3) Surgery-test (mean ± SD/median [range])
Associated injuries Balance task Measures/device considered
Clark et al. [13] Australia ACLR, ST
R/L: 19/24
PRP
45 30 male
15 female
26.0 ± 9.8
(15–53 years)
2) 3.8 ± 3.77 months
(0.32–23.97 months)
3) 10.72 ± 4.25 months
(5.65–20.4 months)
Meniscus repair (n = 10) SLS, flexion, EO
3 × 30 s
Sway amplitude mean velocity
Wii Balance Board
Healthy matched controls 45 30 male
15 female
26.4 ± 9.8
(15–52 years)
  N
Dauty et al. [16] France ACLR, PT/ST
R/L: 21/14
PRP
35 26 male
9 female
25.5 ± 5.8 1) 7.4 months
(1–13 months)
NR SLS, flexion, EO
3 × 12 s
Sway area
AP path length
ML path length
Medicapteurs QFP stabilometric platform
Healthy controls 35 26 male
9 female
24.9 ± 5.9   N
Fernandes et al. [18] Brazil ACLD, CT
14 DL
PRP
14 11 male
3 female
25.0 ± 7.2 1) 9.29 ± 9.59 months
(3–18 months)
N SLS, EO
3 × 30 s
Sway area
AP amplitude
ML amplitude
Sway velocity
Loran engineering EPS pressure platform
Healthy controls 14 10 male
4 female
25.0 ± 2.8   N
Hoffman et al. [27] USA ACLR, PT 20 8 male
12 female
23.4 ± 5.79 2) 9.52 months
(3–30 months)
CD SLS, EO
4 × 20 s
Sway path linear mean
Kistler force plate
Healthy matched controls 20 13 male
7 female
24.0 ± 4.07   CD
Kouvelioti et al. [33] Greece ACLR, ST
PRP
15 NR 24.37 ± 3.50 3) 24 months NR SLS, front raise, EO
1 × 30 s
Sway area
AMTI AccuSway force platform
Healthy controls 10 NR 26.75 ± 2.37   N
Mohammadi et al. [38] Iran ACLR, PT/ST
DL/nDL: 16/12
PRP
30 22 male
8 female
25.0 ± 2.7 3) 8.4 ± 1.8 months
(6–10 months)
Meniscus injury (n = 16) SLS, flexion, EO
3 × 30 s
AP sway amplitude
ML sway amplitude
AP sway velocity
ML sway velocity
mean velocity
Kistler force plate
Healthy matched controls 30 24 male
6 female
24.8 ± 2.4   N
Negahban et al. [40] Iran ACLD, CT 27 27 male 26.74 ± 5.84 1) 21.6 ± 26.76 months NR SLS, semiflexion, EO
3 × 20 s
Mean velocity
Bertec force platform
Healthy matched controls 27 27 male 26.29 ± 5.07   N
Sayuri Tookuni et al. [52] Brazil ACLD, CT
R/L: 8 ⁄ 11
PRP
19 18 male
1 female
15–33 NR NR SLS, flexion, EO
3 × 10 s
Total path length
AP path length
ML path length maximum speed
Tekscan F-Scan mat
Healthy controls 19 11 male,
8 female
18–30   N
Shiraishi et al. [53] Japan ACLR, IT
PRP
ACLD, CT
53
30
22 male
31 female
15 male
15 female
25.3 ± 6.6
(18–44)
23.7 ± 5.3
(18–39)
2) 25.2 ± 21.6 months
(0.25–84 months)
3) 45.6 ± 18 months
(24–72 months)
1) > 4 months
Meniscus injury (n = 33) SLS front raise, EO
3 × 20 s
Total path length
ANIMA GS-10 Gravicorder
Healthy controls 30 15 male
15 female
22.7 ± 2.9
(19–29)
  N
Soltani et al. [57] Iran ACLD copper CT
ACLD non-copper CT
5
10
NR 26.0 ± 3.0
24.0 ± 2.0
1) 18.2 ± 5.0 months
1) 13.0 ± 7.4 months
N SLS, EO
5 × 10 s
Path line length
Sway velocity
Zebris platform
Healthy matched controls 15 NR 23.7 ± 2.4   N
Zouita Ben Moussa et al. [62] Tunisia ACLR, PT 26 NR 22.0 ± 3.11 3) 24 ± 0.25 months NR SLS, EO
3 × 10 s
Sway velocity
NeuroCom Balance Master platform
Healthy matched controls 20 NR 23.96 ± 2.02   N
  1. NR not reported, N no, CD cannot determine, ACLD anterior cruciate ligament deficient, ACLR anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed, CT conservative treatment, PT patellar tendon allograft/autograft, ST semitendinosus tendon allograft/autograft, IT iliotibial tract autograft, DL/nDL dominant leg/non-dominant leg injury, R/L right/left sided injury, PRP patients completed postsurgical rehabilitation program, SLS single-leg stance, EO eyes open, AP anteroposterior, ML mediolateral