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Table 6 Intra-rater reliability and inter-rater reliability for the concussion signs

From: Evidence of Concussion Signs in National Rugby League Match Play: a Video Review and Validation Study

  Intra-rater (κ) (95% CIs) McHugh [33]
κ agreement classification
Inter-rater (κ) (95% CIs) McHugh [33]
κ agreement classification
Absolute disagreement (CIR cases, n = 162)
Clutch of shake head 1.00 (–,–) Perfect 0.76 (0.60–0.91) Moderate 43
Slow to get up 1.00 (–,–) Perfect 0.64 (0.42–0.83) Moderate 27
Gait ataxia 0.77 (0.63–0.90) Moderate 0.37 (0.21–0.53) Minimal 36
Blank/vacant stare 0.65 (0.44–0.84) Moderate 0.22 (0.05–0.40) Minimal 71
Unresponsiveness 0.84 (0.70–0.94) Strong 0.75 (0.56–0.92) Moderate 22
Post-impact seizure 1.00 (–,–) Perfect 0.40 (0.00–0.72) Weak 3
  1. Note. CIs confidence intervals, κ Kappa McHugh, κ agreement was categorised as almost perfect (>.90), strong (.80–.90), moderate (.60–.79), weak (.40–.59), minimal (.21–.39), and none (0–.20)