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Table 5 Summary of video analysis findings for those situations in which the concussion interchange rule was used

From: Evidence of Concussion Signs in National Rugby League Match Play: a Video Review and Validation Study

Signs of concussion Medically diagnosed concussion (n = 60) No diagnosed concussion and no return to playa (n = 16) Returned to playa (n = 80) Diagnosed concussion vs. returned to playa
  Present Absent Missing Present Absent Missing Present Absent Missing    
  % (n) % (n) % (n) % (n) % (n) % (n) % (n) % (n) % (n) χ2 p RR (90% CI)
Unresponsiveness 40 (24) 58.3 (35) 1.7 (1) 43.8 (7) 56.3 (9) 0 (0) 23.8 (19) 75 (60) 1.3 (1) 4.35 .037 1.52 (1.06–2.10)
Slow to get up 100 (60) 0 (0) 0 (0) 100 (16) 0 (0) 0 (0) 96.3 (77) 3.7 (3) 0 (0) Not applicable
Clutching head 63.3 (38) 36.7 (22) 0 (0) 87.5 (14) 12.5 (2) 0 (0) 72.5 (58) 26.3 (21) 1.3 (1) 1.62 .203 0.77 (0.55–1.12)
Gait ataxia 58.3 (35) 23.3 (14) 18.3 (11) 62.5 (10) 37.5 (6) 0 (0) 52.5 (42) 38.8 (31) 8.8 (7) 2.43 .119 1.46 (0.94–2.38)
Vacant stare 75 (45) 15 (9) 10 (6) 62.5 (10) 37.5 (6) 0 (0) 47.5 (38) 37.5 (30) 15 (12) 10.43 .001 2.35 (1.40–4.30)
Possible seizure 5 (3) 95 (57) 0 (0) 0 (0) 100.0 (16) 0 (0) 0 (0) 100 (80) 0 (0) Not applicable
Total signs observed (n) 205 64 174
  1. Note. Video footage for 5 cases of the use of the CIR could not be located and therefore were not coded for concussion signs; there were 6 CIR cases where return to play data is missing
  2. aReturn to play refers to return to play in the same game; RR risk ratio