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Table 4 Rates, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for concussion signs

From: Evidence of Concussion Signs in National Rugby League Match Play: a Video Review and Validation Study

Concussion sign Sign present Medically Dx concussion with sign Sign absent Medically Dx concussion without sign Sign sens 95% CI Sign spec 95% CI PPV 95% CI NPV 95% CI
Clutching or shaking head 212 38 171 22 0.63 0.51–0.75 0.46 0.44–0.48 0.18 0.14–0.21 0.87 0.83–0.91
Slow to get up 223 60 160 0 1.00 0.93–1.00 0.50 0.48–0.50 0.27 0.25–0.27 1.00 0.97–1.00
Gait ataxia 102 35 281 25 0.58 0.46–0.70 0.79 0.77–0.81 0.34 0.27–0.41 0.91 0.86–0.94
Blank or vacant stare 98 45 285 15 0.75 0.63–0.84 0.84 0.81–0.85 0.46 0.39–0.52 0.95 0.92–0.97
Unresponsiveness 52 24 331 36 0.40 0.29–0.50 0.91 0.89–0.93 0.46 0.34–0.58 0.89 0.87–0.91
Possible seizure 4 3 379 57 0.05 0.02–0.07 1.00 0.99–1.00 0.75 0.22–0.99 0.85 0.84–0.85
  1. Note: All calculations were made using the number of times the sign was seen in concussed players, contrasted to the total number of times one or more signs (that appeared to represent a concussion) were seen (n = 383), for the entire season
  2. ≥ greater than or equal to, CI confidence interval, Dx diagnosed, n number, NPV negative predictive value, PPV positive predictive value, Sens sensitivity, Spec specificity