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Table 3 Summary of the rates of concussion signs for the entire season, concussion-related signs, use of the CIR, and medically diagnosed concussions

From: Evidence of Concussion Signs in National Rugby League Match Play: a Video Review and Validation Study

Concussion sign Entire season total Possible concussion sign Use of the CIR CIR missing dataa Medically Diagnosed concussion Medically Diagnosed concussion missing data
(n = 162)a (n = 60)
Unresponsiveness 52 52 50 2 24 1
Slow to get up 2240 223 153 0 60 0
Clutching head 361 212 110 1 38 0
Gait ataxia 102 102 87 18 35 11
Vacant stareb 98 98 93 18 45 6
Possible seizure 4 4 3 0 3 0
  1. Note: CIR concussion interchange rule
  2. The “Entire Season Total” refers to every instance during the season that the sign was observed (whether it appeared to be a sign of concussion or not). The “Possible Concussion Sign” refers to the subset of the Entire Season Total in those instances where the sign was observed, and the sign appeared to be a possible concussion
  3. aVideo footage for 5 cases of the use of the CIR could not be located and therefore were not coded for concussion signs
  4. b The frequency of missing data for the sign ‘vacant stare’ for the entire season total was not recorded