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Table 3 A list of possible risk factors for injury in runners. Evidence is only from systematic reviews and meta-analysis and does not include weak/limited evidence

From: Transitioning to Minimal Footwear: a Systematic Review of Methods and Future Clinical Recommendations

Source Risk factors for injury
Zadpoor and Nikooyan [92] Higher loading rate
van Mechelen [59] Running inexperience
Previous injury
Running to compete
Excessive distance/week
Tonoli et al. [93] Younger
Previous injury
Less running experience
Van Gent et al. [49] High mileage
Previous injuries (BUT this was a protective factor for knee injuries)
Yeung and Yeung [94] High mileage
High frequency of training
High distance
Chuter and Janse de Jonge [95] Excessive foot eversion (but may be a protective factor for stress fractures)
Poor “core” stabilisation
Murphy et al. [96] Regular competition
Running on artificial turf
Previous injury
Specific to stress fractures
 Pes cavus
 Excessive foot inversion
 Decreased bone mineral density
van der Worp et al. [97] History of previous injury
Having used orthotics/inserts
Hulme et al. [98] History of previous injury
Irregular and/or absent menstruation in females = stress fracture risk