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Table 3 Risk Factors of the Athletes

From: Staphylococcus Aureus Carriage in French Athletes at Risk of CA-MRSA Infection: a Prospective, Cross-sectional Study

A. Sport
Factor   SA Carriers/participants (%) p value (test)
 Baseball   18/31 (58.1%) p = 0.422 (chi2)
 Basketball   13/19 (68.4%)
 Football   30/48 (62.5%)
 Weight-lifting   8/16 (50.0%)
 Handball   34/54 (63.0%)
 Rugby   39/56 (70.0%)
 Individual sports/martial arts (wrestling, judo, karate)   33/56 (58.9%)
 Volleyball   8/20 (40.0%)
B. Hygiene
Factor Modality SA Carriers/participants (%) p value (test)
 Shared equipment NO 39/61 (63.9%) p = 0.566 (chi2)
YES 142/237 (59.9%)
 Shared healthcare materials NO 149/240 (62.1%) p = 0.495 (chi2)
YES 32/56 (57.1%)
 Shared personal effects NO 108/176 (61.4%) p = 0.946 (chi2)
YES 75/123 (61.0%)
 Skin damage during sport Never 22/42 (52.4%) p = 0.574 (Fisher)
Rarely 57/94 (60.6%)
Sometimes 75/119 (63.0%)
Often 24/35 (68.6%)
Always 5/10 (50.0%)
 Sauna use NO 176/285 (61.5%) p = 0.093 (chi 2 )
YES 5/13 (38.5%)
 Use of training pool NO 180/296 (60.8%) p = 1.000 (Fisher)
YES 1/2 (50.0%)
 Weights room use NO 154/246 (62.6%) p = 0.152 (chi 2 )
YES 27/52 (51.9%)
 Skin lesion disinfection NO 77/132 (58.3%) p = 0.473 (chi2)
YES 103/165 (62.4%)
 Protection of skin lesions NO 119/198 (60.1%) p = 0.905 (chi2)
YES 59/97 (60.8%)
 Protection of skin lesions during sport NO 87/158 (61.4%) p = 0.767 (chi2)
YES 83/139 (59.7%)
 Shower/bath frequency Every other day 23/31 (74.2%) p = 0.267 (chi2)
Once a day 126/211 (59.7%)
Several times a day 33/57 (57.9%)
C. Medical history in the previous year
Factor modality SA Carriers/participants (%) p value (test)
 Hospitalization NO 156/257 (60.7%) p = 0.795 (chis2)
YES 27/43 (62.8%)
 Superficial skin lesions NO 130/215 (60.5%) p = 0.763 (chi2)
YES 53/85 (62.4%)
 Skin abscess NO 175/291 (60.1%) p = 0.096 (Fisher)
YES 8/9 (88.9%)
 Pneumonia NO 181/297 (60.9%) p = 1.000 (Fisher)
YES 2/3 (66.7%)
 Antibiotic treatment NO 158/256 (61.7%) p = 0.447 (chi2)
YES 21/38 (55.3%)
 Long-term antibiotics NO 182/294 (61.9%) p = 0.035 (Fisher)
YES 1/6 (16.7%)
 Chronic disease NO 173/281 (61.6%) p = 0.440 (chi2)
YES 10/19 (52.6%)
  1. p < 0.25 value are indicated in italics. Data is presented in three parts: A. SA carriage according to sport, B. SA carriage according to hygiene practice, C. SA carriage according to medical history in the previous year