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Table 6 Characteristics of research studies evaluating cognitive performance

From: The Effect of Fluid Intake Following Dehydration on Subsequent Athletic and Cognitive Performance: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Citation Participants Dh protocol; ambient temperature; duration Total REC (min) Dh trial BM loss (%) Fluid type Fluid assimilation time (min) Fluid intake (L∙kg BM
lost−1)
Cognitive domains assessed Ambient temperature; RH; airflow Cognitive domains significantly affected by fluid intake (Hedges’ g)
Cian et al. (2001a) [55] 7 M, unacclimated, endurance trained EX (V); 25 °C; 120 min Testing at 140 and 240 min 2.7 CHO + electrolyte 80/180 1.00 Memory
Perceptive discrimination
Psychomotor function/processing speed
Mood
NS ↑ Memory 2-h post-Dh
Cian et al. (2001b) [55] 7 M, unacclimated, endurance trained HT Testing at 140 and 240 min 2.6 CHO + electrolyte 80/180 1.00 Memory
Perceptive discrimination
Psychomotor function/processing speed
Mood
NS ↑ Memory 2-h post-Dh
↓ Fatigue
Grego et al. (2004) [48] 8 M, endurance trained cyclists EX (V); 20–21 °C; 180 min 5 4.1 Water 185 0.73 Perceptual discrimination
Memory/processing speed
NS No effect
Serwah et al. (2006a) [68] 8 M EX (V); 31 °C; 90 min 3 1.7 Water 9 1.00 Psychomotor function/processing speed NS No effect
Serwah et al. (2006b) [68] 8 M EX (V); 31 °C; 90 min 3 1.7 Water 90 0.50 Psychomotor function/processing speed NS No effect
Edwards et al. (2007b) [58] 11 M, moderately active soccer players EX; 19–25 °C; 90 min 0 2.4 Water 90 0.80 Visual scanning/processing speed NS No effect
Adam et al. (2008a) [56] 8 (6 M), physically active soldiers HT 120 3.0 NS 300 NS Psychomotor function/processing speed
Psychomotor function
Perceptive discrimination
Visual scanning/vigilance
20 °C; 50%; 1 m/s No effect
Adam et al. (2008b) [56] 8 (6 M), physically active soldiers HT 120 3.0 NS 300 NS Psychomotor function/processing speed
Psychomotor function
Perceptive discrimination
Visual scanning/vigilance
2 °C; 50%; 2.2 m/s No effect
D’Anci et al. (2009a) [73] 16 M, university athletes EX; 60 min NS 2.0 Water 60 NS Memory
Psychomotor function/processing speed
Arithmetic/processing speed
Visual scanning/vigilance
Spatial processing
Mood
NS ↑ Psychomotor function/processing speed
↓ Anger, fatigue, depression, tension and confusion; ↑ vigour
D’Anci et al. (2009b) [73] 13 (0 M), university athletes EX; 60–75 min NS 1.7 Water 60-75 NS Memory
Psychomotor function/processing speed
Arithmetic/processing speed
Visual scanning/vigilance
Spatial processing
Mood
NS ↑ Psychomotor function/processing speed
↓ Anger, fatigue, depression, tension and confusion; ↑ vigour
Ganio et al. (2011) [69] 24 M, physically fit EX; 28 °C; 40 min 20 1.6 Water 60 NS Psychomotor function/processing speed
Visual scanning/vigilance
Memory/processing speed
Learning/memory
Logical reasoning/processing speed
Mood
23 °C ↑ Psychomotor function/processing speed and memory/processing speed
↓ Fatigue and tension
Ely et al. (2012b) [67] 32 M, unacclimated EX; 50 °C; 3 h W/R 90 4.1 NaCl + water 270 1.00 Psychomotor function/processing speed
Memory/processing speed
Logical reasoning/processing speed
Mood
Testing at 10, 20, 30 and 40 °C No effect
Wilson et al. (2014) [60] 8 M, licenced jockeys EX; 20 °C; 45 min 0 1.8 Water ~35 1.00 Response inhibition NS No effect
Wittbrodt et al. (2015a) [70] 12 M, recreationally active EX (V); 32 °C; 50 min NS 1.5 Water >50 1.00 Psychomotor function/processing speed
Memory
Perceptive discrimination
Visual scanning/processing speed
32 °C; 65% No effect
Wittbrodt et al. (2015b) [70] 12 M, recreationally active EX (V); 32 °C; 50 min NS 1.5 Water >50 0.80 Psychomotor function/processing speed
Memory
Perceptive discrimination
Visual scanning/processing speed
32 °C; 65% No effect
  1. Exercise intensity is described as high (H), vigorous (V) or moderate (M), in accordance with classifications outlined by Norton et al. [86]. Values are Hedges’ g effect sizes
  2. CHO carbohydrate, Dh dehydration, EX exercise, HT heat, NS not specified, Total REC time from completing the dehydration protocol to commencing the subsequent task, W/R work rest cycle