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Table 1 Characteristics of research studies evaluating athletic performance on continuous exercise tasks (studies are presented by order of effect)

From: The Effect of Fluid Intake Following Dehydration on Subsequent Athletic and Cognitive Performance: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Citation Participants VO2 max Dh protocol (exercise intensity); ambient temperature; duration Total REC (min) Dh trial BM loss (%) Fluid type Fluid assimilation time (min) Fluid intake (L kg BM lost−1) Duration (min) Performance indicator Ambient temperature; RH; airflow Hedges’ g
Kenefick et al. (2010a) [41] 8 M 43.6 ± 4.1 EX; 50 °C; 3-h W/R 120 4.1 NaCl 300 1.05 15 TW (cycle ergometer) 10 °C 0.05
Chevront et al. (2005a) [42] 8 (6 M), physically active 48 ± 9 HT 210 3.0 NS 390 1.00 30 TW (cycle ergometer) 2 °C; 50%; 2.2 m/s 0.11
Stewart et al. (2014) [37] 7 M, recreational cyclists 52.7 ± 7.9 EX (H); 37 °C; 120 min 120 3.8 Water 120 1.15 7.2 TT (cycle ergometer) 18–25 °C; 20–30% 0.12
McConell et al. (1999a) [25] 8 M, well-trained cyclists/triathletes 63.8 ± 1.2 EX (V); 21 °C; 45 min 0 1.9 Water 45 1.00 15 TW (cycle ergometer) 21 °C; 41%; airflow NS 0.15
McConell et al. (1999b) [25] 8 M, well-trained cyclists/triathletes 63.8 ± 1.2 EX (V); 21 °C; 45 min 0 1.9 Water 45 0.50 15 TW (cycle ergometer) 21 °C; 41%; airflow NS 0.24
McConell et al. (1997a) [24] 7 M, well-trained cyclists/triathletes 68. ± 2.5 EX (V); 21 °C, 120 min 0 3.2 Deionized water 120 0.50 3.5 TTE (cycle ergometer) 21 °C, 43%; airflow NS 0.24
Kenefick et al. (2006) [36] 8 M, unacclimated 63.7 ± 10.2 EX (M); 36 °C; 75 min 30 2.3 NaCl + NNS 20 1.00 55 TTE (treadmill running) 37 °C; 42% 0.28*
Hillman et al. (2011a) [29] 7 M, unacclimated, competitive cyclists NS EX (V); 34 °C; 90 min 15 3.0 Water 105 1.00 7.2 PO (cycle ergometer) 23 °C 0.32
Chevront et al. (2005b) [42] 8 (6 M) physically active 48 ± 9 HT 210 2.9 NS 390 1.00 30 TW (cycle ergometer) 20 °C; 50%; 1 m/s 0.35*
Paik et al. (2009) [50] 10 M, moderately active 53.6 ± 11.4 HT 120 3.0 Water 120 1.00 30 TTE (treadmill running) NS 0.43
McConell et al. (1997b) [24] 7 M, well-trained cyclists/triathletes 68.4 ± 2.5 EX (V); 21 °C, 120 min 0 3.2 Deionized water 120 1.00 4.2 TTE (cycle ergometer) 21 °C, 43%; airflow NS 0.58*
Hillman et al. (2011b) [29] 7 M, unacclimated, competitive cyclists NS EX (V); 34 °C; 90 min 15 3.8 Water 105 1.00 7.2 PO (cycle ergometer) 34 °C 0.60*
Kenefick et al. (2010c) [41] 8 M 46.3 ± 5.2 EX; 50 °C; 3-h W/R 120 4.0 NaCl 300 1.05 15 TW (cycle ergometer) 30 °C 0.64*
Castellani et al. (1997) [62] 8 M, unacclimated 57.9 ± 4.5 EX (M); 33 °C; 180 min 135 4.1 NaCl + NNS 120 0.50 72 TTE (treadmill walking) 36 °C; 47%; 2.3 m/s 0.68*
Walsh et al. (1994a) [33] 6 M, endurance cyclists/ triathletes 61.4 ± 4.4 EX (V); 30 °C; 60 min 0 1.8 NaCl + NNS 50 0.90 8.2 TTE (cycle ergometer) 30 °C; 60%; 0.8 m/s 0.74*
Kenefick et al. (2010b) [41] 8 M 45.3 ± 4.6 EX; 50 °C; 3-h W/R 120 4.2 NaCl 300 1.05 15 TW (cycle ergometer) 20 °C 0.79
Kavouras et al. (2006) [77] 8 M, acclimated, endurance cyclists 61.4 ± 2.3 FR + EX (M); 120 min >12 h 3.9 Water + NNS 80 0.75 23 TTE (cycle ergometer) 37 °C; 48%; 2.54 m/s 0.81*
Kenefick et al. (2010d) [41] 8 M 43.7 ± 7.0 EX; 50 °C; 3-h W/R 120 4.1 NaCl 300 1.05 15 TW (cycle ergometer) 40 °C 0.87*
Below et al. (1994) [63] 8 M, acclimated, endurance trained 62.9 ± 2.8 EX (V); 31 °C; 50 min 0 2.0 NaCl + NNS 50 1.00 11 TT (cycle ergometer) 31 °C; 54% 0.89*
Casa et al. (2000) [76] 8 M, unacclimated, endurance cyclists 61.4 ± 2.3 FR + EX (M); 120 min >12 h 3.9 NaCl + NNS 35 0.50 27 TTE (cycle ergometer) 37 °C; 2.3 m/s 1.25*
Melin et al. (1994) [47] 6 M, unacclimated, endurance trained 57.5 ± 4.2 HT 60 2.6 Water NS 0.50 97 TTE (treadmill marching) 35 °C; 20–30%; 0.8 m/s 1.23*
Hasegawa et al. (2006) [64] 9 M, untrained 48.5 ± 4.5 EX (M); 32 °C; 60 min 4 1.6 Water 65 1.00 4.4 TTE (cycle ergometer) 32 °C; 80% 4.01*
  1. Exercise intensity is described as high (H), vigorous (V) or moderate (M), in accordance with classifications outlined by Norton et al. [86]. Values are Hedges’ g effect sizes
  2. Dh dehydration, EX exercise, FR fluid restriction, HT heat, NNS non-nutritive sweetener, NS not specified, PO power output, RH relative humidity, Total REC time from completing the dehydration protocol to commencing the subsequent task, TT time trial, TTE time to exhaustion, TW total work, W/R work rest cycle
  3. *Significant difference between performances undertaken with and without fluid replacement (p < 0.05)