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Table 1 Studies assessing muscle strength and hypertrophy responses to resistance training under conditions of hypoxia

From: Resistance Training Using Different Hypoxic Training Strategies: a Basis for Hypertrophy and Muscle Power Development

  n N-CG (n) Training level H cond. Level of hypoxia Training intervention Additional hypoxia effects with respect to the CG
Weeks (s/w) Volume Exercise Muscle strength Muscle structure
Friedman et al. [14] 19 Yes (9) Untrained NH (H room) 12% FiO2 4 weeks
(3)
30% 1RM
6 × 25 reps.
(Rest 60 s )
Knee extension 1RM (ns)
MIKS (ns)
End-50 (ns)
CSA (ns)
Fiber TD (ns)
Ho et al. [15] 18 Yes (9) Untrained NH (hypoxic tent) 15% FiO2
(+10 min pre- and post-training)
6 weeks
(3)
10RM
3 × 10RM
(Rest 120 s)
Back squat 1RM (ns)
MIS-60 (ns)
MIKS 60/s (ns)
 
Kon et al. [16] 16 Yes (7) Untrained NH (hypoxia room) 14% FiO2
(+10-15 min pre- and 30-60 min post-training)
8 weeks
(2)
70% 1RM
5 × 10
(Rest 90 s)
Bench press
Leg press
1RM (ns) CSA (ns)
Kurobe et al. [17] 13 Yes (7) Untrained NH (hypoxia room) 13% FiO2
(+30 min pre-training +60 min post-training)
8 weeks
(3)
10RM
3× rep. to failure
(Rest 60 s)
Elbow extension 10RM (ns)  
Manimmanakorn et al. [21, 22] 30 Yes (10) Well-trained netball players NH (face mask) 80% SaO2 5 weeks
(3)
20% 1RM
3× rep. to failure
(Rest 30 s)
Knee flexion
Knee extension
MIS-80°▲
MIS-30▲
End-20▲
CSA ▲
Nishimura et al. [31] 14 Yes (7) Untrained NH (hypoxia room) 16% FiO2
(+30 min pre- and post-training)
6 weeks
(2)
70% 1RM
4 × 10 reps.
(rest 60 s)
Elbow extension
Elbow flexion
1RM (ns) CSA (ns)
  1. n sample size, N-CG normoxia control group (sample size), H cond. hypoxia condition, NH normobaric hypoxia, FiO 2 inspired fraction of oxygen, Weeks s/w number of session performed in the week, volume %RM load expressed as a percentage of 1 repetition maximum, sets × repetitions interset rest period, MIS maximal isometric strength, MIKS maximal isokinetic strength, End-n strength endurance capacity test of n repetitions, CSA cross-sectional area, fiber TD fiber type distribution, ▲ increase, decrease, ns non-significant change