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Table 5 Body composition of included study estimates across the season

From: Total Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Endurance Athletes Across the Training Season: A Systematic Review

  Preparation Competition Transition
Endurance discipline n Body mass [kg] Body fat [%] Fat-free mass [kg] n Body mass [kg] Body fat [%] Fat-free mass [kg] n Body mass [kg] Body fat [%] Fat-free mass [kg]
Cyclists a
 Total 60 67.8 ± 6.5 16.7 ± 6.8 55.4 ± 9.2 49 75.3 ± 3.3 15.1 ± 1.3 62.5 ± 4.7
 Male 31 73.3 ± 4.2 11.6 ± 1.7 64.1 ± 2.7 49 75.3 ± 3.3 15.1 ± 1.3 62.5 ± 4.7
 Female
Runners a
 Total 77 58.0 ± 5.7 12.5 ± 4.5 50.7 ± 7.2 74 60.7 ± 6.4 14.5 ± 5.2 50.4 ± 6.8 40 58.4 ± 5.3 15.6 ± 4.7 49.4 ± 7.3
 Male 35 62.3 ± 5.3 9.2 ± 2.4 57.1 ± 5.8 39 63.4 ± 7.8 10.3 ± 3.6 55.7 ± 4.6 15 64.8 ± 2.1 9.6 ± 0.9 58.5 ± 2.5
 Female 42 54.4 ± 2.6 16.7 ± 2.7 45.3 ± 1.7 35 57.7 ± 1.5 19.2 ± 0.7 44.4 ± 2.3 25 54.5 ± 1.4 19.1 ± 0.5 44.0 ± 1.0
Swimmers a
 Total 166 69.1 ± 6.0 18.3 ± 5.6 54.8 ± 8.0 93 69.9 ± 6.5 16.0 ± 5.0 57.5 ± 8.2
 Male 83 73.5 ± 2.7 12.9 ± 1.3 63.1 ± 2.4 56 75.5 ± 2.8 12.2 ± 1.2 64.4 ± 4.7
 Female 83 63.5 ± 2.5 23.7 ± 1.4 47.6 ± 1.1 37 63.5 ± 2.2 21.8 ± 2.2 49.5 ± 1.3
Rowers a
 Total 54 78.1 ± 10.7 16.1 ± 7.1 65.8 ± 13.8 39 80.7 ± 10.1 14.3 ± 6.5 66.0 ± 12.2
 Male 36 84.7 ± 5.6 11.3 ± 1.1 75.1 ± 4.9 29 86.2 ± 4.0 10.5 ± 1.0 72.9 ± 3.4
 Female 18 64.8 ± 3.2 25.8 ± 2.5 47.4 ± 0.4
Cross-country skiers a
 Total 76 63.7 ± 5.9 15.7 ± 5.7 53.9 ± 7.7
 Male 34 69.3 ± 2.3 10.3 ± 1.6 62.2 ± 1.7
 Female 42 59.2 ± 3.5 20.1 ± 3.6 47.1 ± 0.9
Triathletes a
 Total 48 64.2 ± 3.3 13.6 ± 3.3 54.8 ± 5.2
 Male
 Female
Other endurance athletes a
Total 142 67.9 ± 6.8 15.7 ± 4.2 57.5 ± 8.0 22 71.8 ± 11.0 18.5 ± 2.5 58.8 ± 10.6
 Male 90 72.6 ± 3.2 13.0 ± 2.7 62.8 ± 4.3 15 79.2 ± 0.2 16.8 ± 0.2 65.8 ± 0.3
 Female 52 59.8 ± 1.5 20.3 ± 1.6 48.2 ± 2.0
Total
 Total 623 67.5 ± 7.1b 15.9 ± 5.7 55.8 ± 9.2b 291 70.8 ± 8.6 15.2 ± 4.8 57.6 ± 9.5 95 65.3 ± 7.1b 15.1 ± 4.8 54.0 ± 7.2b
 Male 347 72.0 ± 6.7b,c 11.8 ± 2.3b,c 63.0 ± 5.9c 202 74.5 ± 8.1 12.6 ± 2.8 62.9 ± 6.9 54 69.7 ± 3.4b 11.2 ± 1.7b 59.8 ± 1.9b
 Female 276 60.5 ± 4.1 21.6 ± 3.6c 47.0 ± 1.6 89 60.2 ± 4.4 21.2 ± 2.4 47.0 ± 3.0 41 59.4 ± 6.4 20.2 ± 1.4 46.2 ± 2.9
  1. Note. Data are shown in weighted mean and standard deviation of the weighted mean (X̅w ± SDw)
  2. n = cumulative number of subjects,  = insufficient data
  3. aData not normal distributed. To limit the risk of type I error no statistical comparison between seasonal training phases differentiated by sex and endurance discipline were performed
  4. bSignificantly different from competition phase (p < 0.05)
  5. cSignificantly different from transition phase (p < 0.05)