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Table 4 Energy intake in kcal/day and kcal/kg/day of endurance athletes in preparation and competition phase

From: Total Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Endurance Athletes Across the Training Season: A Systematic Review

  Preparation Competition
Endurance discipline n Energy intake [kcal/day] Energy intake [kcal/kg·day] n Energy intake [kcal/day] Energy intake [kcal/kg·day]
Cyclists
 Total 46 3789 ± 764d,e,f 52.3 ± 13.3d,e 133 3600 ± 1102d 46.9 ± 17.7d,f
 Male 46 3789 ± 764d,e 52.3 ± 13.3d,e 125 3603 ± 1137 45.9 ± 18.0
 Female
Runners
 Total 278 2489 ± 425a 38.2 ± 7.8a 272 3042 ± 788 42.7 ± 4.7
 Male 207 2640 ± 366a,b,f 38.3 ± 8.6a 203 3298 ± 713b 43.8 ± 3.2b
 Female 71 2046 ± 230a 38.0 ± 4.6c 69 2291 ± 443 39.4 ± 6.4
Swimmers
 Total 73 3366 ± 902a,d,e,g 48.7 ± 9.6a,d,e 55 2769 ± 681g,h 40.1 ± 7.7g
 Male 39 3963 ± 762a,b 53.2 ± 9.5a,b,d,e 24 3462 ± 341b 46.2 ± 6.5b
 Female 34 2683 ± 450a,d,e 43.6 ± 6.9a,e 31 2234 ± 256 35.4 ± 4.7
Rowers
 Total 70 2426 ± 448a 33.9 ± 4.5a 15 3633 ± 1097 46.8 ± 10.9
 Male 24 2921 ± 326b,f 36.0 ± 0.1b
 Female 46 2168 ± 330 32.8 ± 5.2c
Cross-country skiers
 Total 138 3224 ± 917a,d,e,g 48.3 ± 12.7a,d,e 33 2091 ± 53.2d,e,f,g 32.7 ± 2.9c
 Male 124 3287 ± 876d,f,g 48.3 ± 11.6d,e
 Female 14 2663 ± 1107d,e 49.1 ± 20.3
Triathletes
 Total 16 3162 ± 159d,e 45.7 ± 2.6e
 Male 16 3162 ± 159f,g 45.7 ± 2.6
 Female
Other endurance athletes
 Total 96 3261 ± 282a,d,e,g 46.5 ± 5.1a,d,e 14 4656 ± 1070
 Male 90 3274 ± 286a,d,f,g 46.3 ± 5.2a,d,e,f 14 d,f,g,h
 Female 4656 ± 1070c
Total
 Total 717 2915 ± 761a 42.8 ± 10.5 531 3156 ± 967 43.5 ± 11.3
 Male 546 3111 ± 717a,b 44.0 ± 10.6b 407 3405 ± 940b 44.8 ± 11.9b
 Female 171 2291 ± 525 39.0 ± 9.1 124 2337 ± 483 39.3 ± 7.9
  1. Note. Data are shown in weighted mean and standard deviation of the weighted mean (X̅w ± SDw)
  2. n = cumulative number of subjects, – = insufficient data
  3. aSignificantly different from athletes of the same endurance discipline and sex during competition phase (p < 0.01)
  4. bSignificantly different from females of the same endurance discipline and seasonal training phase (p < 0.01)
  5. cSignificantly different from all other endurance disciplines of the same sex and seasonal training phase (p < 0.05)
  6. dSignificantly different to runners of the same sex and seasonal training phase (p < 0.05)
  7. eSignificantly different to rowers of the same sex and seasonal training phase (p < 0.05)
  8. fSignificantly different to swimmers of the same sex and seasonal training phase (p < 0.05)
  9. gSignificantly different to cyclists of the same sex and seasonal training phase (p < 0.05)
  10. hSignificantly different to cross-country skiers of the same sex and seasonal training phase (p < 0.05)