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Table 3 Physical characteristics of included study estimates

From: Total Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Endurance Athletes Across the Training Season: A Systematic Review

Endurance discipline (N) n Age [years] Height [cm] Body mass [kg] BMI [kg/m2] VO2max [mL/kg min] Train load [h/week]b
Cyclists
 Total (18) 313 30.9 ± 6.1 177 ± 5 75.4 ± 5.9 23.4 ± 1.6 62.4 ± 6.2 14.0 ± 8.5
 Male (16) 276 31.8 ± 5.6 179 ± 3 74.4 ± 5.5 23.6 ± 1.6 65.0 ± 4.8 15.2 ± 9.6
 Female (2) 37 24.2 ± 0.5 166 ± 1 61.2 ± 1.1 22.1 ± 0.6 55.8 ± 4.0
Runners
 Total (23)a 465 30.3 ± 7.1 172 ± 5 64.1 ± 7.4 20.3 ± 1.3 61.7 ± 7.2 8.6 ± 4.2
 Male (16) 330 31.4 ± 6.9 175 ± 3 67.9 ± 5.5 20.6 ± 1.4 64.3 ± 6.7 8.6 ± 4.3
 Female (13) 135 27.4 ± 6.7 167 ± 3 55.6 ± 2.2 19.9 ± 1.0 57.3 ± 5.8 8.7 ± 4.0
Swimmers
 Total (16)a 275 19.9 ± 1.5 176 ± 6 69.5 ± 5.9 22.4 ± 0.7 17.2 ± 10.3
 Male (10) 141 20.3 ± 1.9 181 ± 3 74.3 ± 3.2 22.7 ± 0.7 13.4 ± 5.6
 Female (10) 134 19.4 ± 0.4 170 ± 4 63.9 ± 2.5 22.0 ± 0.5 23.1 ± 12.8
Rowers
 Total (14) 151 20.2 ± 1.0 180 ± 9 76.1 ± 10.3 23.5 ± 1.0 54.6 ± 8.5 7.2 ± 2.4
 Male (9) 89 20.6 ± 1.0 188 ± 3 85.4 ± 5.0 24.0 ± 0.9 7.2 ± 2.4
 Female (5) 62 19.6 ± 0.6 171 ± 2 66.3 ± 2.2 22.9 ± 0.7
Cross-country skiers
 Total (6)a 166 25.0 ± 4.3 175 ± 5 65.9 ± 4.5 21.5 ± 0.7 61.9 ± 4.3 11.5 ± 0.5
 Male (5) 124 26.2 ± 4.2 177 ± 2 68.1 ± 1.4 21.7 ± 0.6 11.7 ± 0.4
 Female (3) 42 21.3 ± 1.3 168 ± 2 59.2 ± 3.5 21.0 ± 0.8
Triathletes
 Total (4)a 78 25.1 ± 4.2 175 ± 3 66.2 ± 3.6 21.6 ± 0.7 65.3 ± 0.4 11.4 ± 2.0
 Male (4) 68 25.8 ± 4.0 176 ± 0 67.5 ± 1.8 21.8 ± 0.5 65.3 ± 0.4 11.6 ± 2.1
 Female (1) 10
Other endurance athletes
 Total (13)a 226 25.2 ± 4.0 176 ± 6 69.1 ± 6.7 22.5 ± 1.1 61.7 ± 4.7 10.5 ± 3.8
 Male (12) 167 25.5 ± 4.0 178 ± 3 72.7 ± 3.4 22.9 ± 0.9 63.8 ± 3.8 11.2 ± 4.5
 Female (4) 59 24.5 ± 3.7 168 ± 1 59.3 ± 1.8 21.3 ± 0.6 56.8 ± 2.3 9.1 ± 0.7
Total
 Total (82)a 1674 26.3 ± 6.7 176 ± 6 68.7 ± 8.0 22.2 ± 1.5 61.8 ± 6.0 12.0 ± 6.9
 Male (63) 1195 27.7 ± 6.8 179 ± 4 72.1 ± 6.5 22.6 ± 1.5 64.4 ± 4.8 11.6 ± 5.6
 Female (34) 479 22.9 ± 5.1 169 ± 3 60.5 ± 4.5 21.4 ± 1.2 56.6 ± 4.6 12.8 ± 9.0
  1. Note. Data are shown in weighted mean and standard deviation of the weighted mean (X̅w ± SDw)
  2. N = number of studies, n = cumulative number of subjects, BMI body mass index, – = insufficient data
  3. aSum of male and female studies not equal to total as in certain studies both sexes were assessed
  4. bCalculated as the following: 1 h of training = 25 km cycling or 10 km running or 2 km swimming