Skip to main content

Table 2 Characteristics of the studies included in the review of body composition (BC), energy intake (EI), and total energy expenditure (TEE)

From: Total Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Endurance Athletes Across the Training Season: A Systematic Review

Reference Study design n (sex) Discipline (distance), level Age (years) Ethnicity, country Assessment methods Seasonal phasea Quality rating
BC EI TEE
Armstrong et al. 2012 [80] Observational study 42 (M) Cyclists, nonelite 38 ± 6 NR, USA   24 h DR   2 8
Barr & Costill 1992 [43] Observational study 24 (M) Swimmers, tertiary 19.4 ± 0.4 NR, USA   2d DR   1, 2 8
Bemben et al. 2004 [35] Observational study 11 (F) Cross-country runners, tertiary 19.5 ± 0.4 NR, USA DXA 3d DR   1, 3 8
Berg et al. 2008 [81] Observational study 9 (M)
7 (F)
Athletes (UE), elite 27 [25–35] (M)
32 [26–42] (F)
NR, Sweden BIA    2 8
Berg et al. 2008 [81] Observational study 6 (M) Athletes (UE), elite 27 [25–35] NR, Sweden    HR 2 8
Bescós et al. 2012 [60] Observational study 8 (M) Cyclists (6), triathletes (2), non-professional 36.7 ± 4.7 NR, Spain   DR HR 2 8
Boulay et al. 1994 [66] Cross-sectional study 7 (M) Cross-country skiers, provincial/national 21 ± 5 NR, Canada UW 3d DR HR 1 8
Brewer et al. 2013 [82] RCT 9 (M) Cyclists, NR 32.6 ± 7.4 NR, Australia DXA    2 8
Brinkworth et al. 2002 [83] RCT 6 (F) Rowers, international 20.6 ± 2.3 NR, Australia   DR   2 7
Carbuhn et al. 2010 [36] Observational study 16 (F) Swimmers, tertiary 19 ± 1 NR, USA DXA    1, 3 9
Costa et al. 2014 [63] Cross-sectional study 19 (M)
6 (F)
Runners (UE), NR 39 ± 7 NR, UK   24 h recall Accelerometry 2 8
Couzy et al. 1990 [44] Observational study 6 (M) Runners (MD), national/international 21.5 ± 0.7 NR, France   7d DR   1, 2 8
Decombaz et al. 1992 [84] Observational study 17 (M) Endurance skiers, NR 34.1 ± 1.4 NR, Switzerland   14d DR   1 8
Dellavalle & Haas 2014 [85] RCT 28 (F) Rowers, NR 19.8 ± 1.1 (PLA)
19.7 ± 0.9 (CON)
NR, USA   7d DR   1 8
Desgorces et al. 2004 [45] Observational study 11 (M) Rowers, NR 21.5 ± 0.8 NR, France   3d DR   1, 3 7
Desgorces et al. 2008 [86] Observational study 13 (M) Rowers, NR 21.5 ± 0.8 NR, France   3d DR   1 7
Drenowatz et al. 2012 [87] Observational study 15 (M) Endurance athletes (LD/UE), NR 23.6 ± 3.4 NR, USA BodPod FFQ   1 8
Drenowatz et al. 2013 [88] Observational study 15 (M) Endurance athletes, NR 23.6 ± 3.4 NR, USA    HR 1 8
Emhoff et al. 2013 [89] Cross-sectional study 6 (M) Cyclists/triathletes, competitive 24 ± 2 NR, USA   3d DR   2 8
Enqvist et al. 2010 [90] Observational study 6 (M) Endurance athletes (UE), NR 31 ± 4 NR, Sweden BIA    2 8
Fudge et al. 2006 [11] Observational study 9 (M) Runners (MD/LD), national/international 21 ± 2 Kalenjin, Kenya BIA 7d DR DLW 1 8
Fudge et al. 2008 [91] Cross-sectional study 14 (M) Runners (MD/LD), national/international 22 ± 3 NR, Kenya BIA 5d DR   2 8
Garcia-Roves et al. 1998 [92] Cross-sectional study 10 (M) Cyclists, international 27.6 ± 2.0 NR, Spain   3d DR   2 8
Garcia-Roves et al. 2000 [46] Observational study 6 (M) Cyclists, international 27.0 ± 1.9 NR, Spain   3d DR   1, 2 8
Gorsuch et al. 2013 [93] RCT 10 (M)
10 (F)
Cross-country runners, tertiary 19.2 ± 0.4 (M)
19.9 ± 0.4 (F)
NR, USA BodPod    3 8
Griffith et al. 1990 [94] Observational study 6 (M) Endurance athletes, NR 28 NR, USA UW    1 8
Hassapidou & Manstrantoni 2001 [47] Observational study 11 (F) Runners (MD), regional 22.7 ± 2 NR, Greece   7d DR   1, 2 7
Hassapidou & Manstrantoni 2001 [47] Observational study 9 (F) Swimmers, regional 18.5 ± 1.1 NR, Greece   7d DR   1, 2 7
Havemann & Goedecke 2008 [95] Observational study 45 (M) Cyclists, NR 39 ± 10 NR, South Africa   3d DR   2 8
Heinonen et al. 1993 [96] Cross-sectional study 30 (F) Orienteers, NR 23.3 ± 3.1 NR, Finland BIA    1 8
Heinonen et al. 1993 [96] Cross-sectional study 29 (F) Cyclists, NR 24.0 ± 5.7 NR, Finland BIA    1 8
Heinonen et al. 1993 [96] Cross-sectional study 28 (F) Cross-country skiers, NR 21.3 ± 3.2 NR, Finland BIA    1 8
Herring et al. 1992 [97] Observational study 9 (F) Endurance runners, NR 25.9 ± 2.4 NR, USA UW 3d DR   1 9
Hill & Davies 2002 [69] Cross-sectional study 7 (F) Lightweight rowers, elite 20.0 ± 1.1 NR, Australia DLW 4d DR DLW 1 9
Hulton et al. 2010 [62] Cross-sectional study 4 (M) Cyclists (UE), non-professional 37 ± 4 NR, USA   6.5d DR DLW 2 9
Jensen et al. 1992 [48] Observational study 14 (M) Cyclists, tertiary 23.1 ± 2.4 NR, USA   5d DR
3d DR
  1, 2 7
Jones & Leitch 1993 [98] Cross-sectional study 5 (M)
3 (F)
Swimmers, tertiary 19.8 (M)
20.7 (F)
NR, Canada DLW    2 8
Jurimae et al. 1999 [99] Cross-sectional study 10 (M) Rowers, tertiary 21.6 ± 4.2 NR, Estonia BIA    1 8
Jurimae et al. 2006 [100] Cross-sectional study 8 (M) Rowers, tertiary 21.5 ± 4.5 NR, Estonia BIA    1 8
Jurimae & Jurimae 2004 [101] Cross-sectional study 10 (F) Rowers, tertiary 19.4 ± 1.6 NR, Estonia DXA    2 8
Jurimae et al. 2007 [102] Observational study 12 (M) Rowers, national/international 20.8 ± 3 NR, Estonia BIA    1 8
Jurimae et al. 2011 [103] Cross-sectional study 9 (M) Rowers, national 20.1 ± 1.6 NR, Estonia DXA 3d DR   2 8
Kabasakalis et al. 2007 [37] Observational study 4 (M) Swimmers (sprint/MD), international 18.4 ± 1.2 NR, Greece BIA    1, 2 8
Koshimizu et al. 2012 [104] Cross-sectional study 24 (M) Endurance athletes, elite 21.5 ± 3.4 NR, Japan BodPod 3d DR   1 8
LaForgia et al. 1999 [38] Observational study 16 (M) Endurance athletes, NR 23.1 ± 4.7 NR, Australia DXA    1, 3 8
Lazzer et al. 2012 [105] Cross-sectional study 10 (M) Runners (UE), amateur 38.2 ± 12.4 NR, Italy BIA    2 8
Loftin et al. 1992 [39] Observational study 5 (M)
5 (F)
Cross-country runners, tertiary 20.8 ± 1.1 (M)
20.8 ± 1.8 (F)
NR, USA UW    2, 3 8
Maestu et al. 2010 [106] Observational study 9 (M) Rowers, international 19.7 ± 1.0 NR, Estonia DXA    2 8
Magkos et al. 2007 [107] Cross-sectional study 7 (M) Endurance swimmers, national/international 19.4 ± 1.9 Caucasian, Greece DXA    2 8
Magkos et al. 2007 [107] Cross-sectional study 10 (M) Endurance runners, national/international 23.4 ± 3.8 Caucasian, Greece DXA    2 8
Maïmoun et al. 2003 [108] Cross-sectional study 11 (M) Cyclists, national 27.4 ± 5.8 NR, France DXA    2 8
Maïmoun et al. 2003 [108] Cross-sectional study 14 (M) Triathletes, regional 25.7 ± 6.6 NR, France DXA    2 8
Maïmoun et al. 2003 [108] Cross-sectional study 13 (M) Swimmers (sprint/MD), tertiary 25.4 ± 6.5 NR, France DXA    2 8
Margaritis et al. 2003 [49] Observational study 9 (M) Triathletes (LD), NR 32.6 ± 10.5 NR, France   28d/14d DR   1, 2 8
Martin et al. 2002 [109] Observational study 8 (F) Cyclists, international 25.1 ± 4.0 NR, Australia   8–9d DR   2 8
Medelli et al. 2009 [110] Cross-sectional study 23 (M) Cyclists, international 28.5 ± 3.9 NR, France DXA    1 7
Moses & Manore 1991 [111] Observational study 17 (M) Runners (LD), elite 25.7 ± 3.9 NR, USA   3d DR   2 8
Moses & Manore 1991 [111] Observational study 9 (F) Runners, NR 34.8 ± 6 NR, USA   3d DR   1 8
Motonaga et al. 2006 [112] Cross-sectional study 6 (M) Runners, sub-elite 19-21 NR, Japan BIA   HR 1 8
Muoio et al. 1994 [113] Cross-sectional study 6 (M) Runners (LD), tertiary 21 ± 0.7 NR, USA UW 4d DR   1 8
Noland et al. 2001 [40] Observational study 12 (F) Swimmers, tertiary 19.8 ± 0.1 NR, USA UW    1, 2 7
Ousley-Pahnke et al. 2001 [114] Cross-sectional study 15 (F) Swimmers, tertiary 19.6 ± 1.2 NR, USA   4d DR   2 7
Palazzetti et al. 2004 [115] Observational study 7 (M) Triathletes, NR 32.9 ± 9.9 NR, France   28d DR   1 8
Palm et al. 2005 [116] Cross-sectional study 11 (M) Rowers, national 19.1 ± 3.8 NR, Estonia DXA    2 8
Papadopoulou et al. 2012 [50] Observational study 23 (M)
10 (F)
Cross-country skiers, international 20 ± 6 (M)
20 ± 5 (F)
NR, Greece BIA 3d/1d DR   1 (BC/EI), 2 (EI) 8
Penteado et al. 2010 [117] Cross-sectional study 31 (M) Cyclists, NR 24.7 ± 3.2 NR, Brazil DXA 4d DR   3 9
Peters & Goetzsche 1997 [51] Observational study 151 (M)
22 (F)
Runners (UE), NR 37 ± 9.2 (M)
36 ± 6.1 (F)
NR, South Africa   24 h DR   1, 2 8
Phillips et al. 1993 [118] Cross-sectional study 6 (M)
6 (F)
Runners, tertiary 23.3 ± 3.9 (M)
23.0 ± 4.9 (F)
NR, Canada UW    1 8
Rehrer et al. 2010 [61] Observational study 4 (M) Cyclists, national/international 20 ± 3 NR, New Zealand DXA 6d DR DLW 2 8
Roberts & Smith 1992 [119] Observational study 9 (M) Swimmers, international 23 ± 2 NR, Canada   2d DR   1 8
Santos et al. 2014 [120] Cross-sectional study 36 (M) Swimmers, NR 19.1 ± 3.4 (M) NR, Portugal DXA    2 8
Santos et al. 2014 [120] Cross-sectional study 38 (M)
10 (F)
Triathletes, NR 22.9 ± 5.4 (M)
20.4 ± 3.1 (F)
NR, Portugal DXA    2 8
Santos et al. 2014 [120] Cross-sectional study 11 (M)
16 (F)
Athletic athletes, NR 20.1 ± 3.0 (M)
21.3 ± 4.1 (F)
NR, Portugal DXA    2 8
Sato et al. 2011 [121] Observational study 6 (M)
13 (F)
Swimmers, tertiary 19.5 ± 1.0 (M)
19.4 ± 1.0 (F)
NR, Japan BIA 3d DR   1 9
Schena et al. 1995 [122] Cross-sectional study 73 (M) Cross-country skiers, NR 26.9 ± 4.4 NR, Italian   7d DR   1 8
Schena et al. 1995 [122] Cross-sectional study 33 (M) Roller skiers, NR 25.6 ± 4.1 NR, Italian   7d DR   1 8
Schena et al. 1995 [122] Cross-sectional study 35 (M) Runners, NR 26.8 ± 3.7 NR, Italian   7d DR   1 8
Schena et al. 1995 [122] Cross-sectional study 18 (M) Cyclists, NR 30.1 ± 5.1 NR, Italian   7d DR   1 8
Schenk et al. 2010 [123] Cross-sectional study 25 (M) Mountain bikers, amateur 38 ± 10 NR, Austria BIA    2 8
Schulz et al. 1992 [68] Cross-sectional study 9 (F) Runners (LD), national/international 26.0 ± 3.3 NR, USA UW 6d DR DLW 1 8
Sherman et al. 1993 [124] Cross-sectional study 18 (M) Cyclists, NR 30 ± 3 (n = 9)
25 ± 3 (n = 9)
NR, USA UW    1 7
Sherman et al. 1993 [124] Cross-sectional study 18 (M) Runners, NR 30 ± 3 (n = 9)
34 ± 3 (n = 9)
NR, USA UW    1 7
Siders et al. 1991 [41] Observational study 6 (M)
11 (F)
Swimmers, tertiary 19.5 ± 1.0 (M)
19.2 ± 1.0 (F)
NR, USA UW    1, 2 8
Siders et al. 1993 [42] Observational study 31 (M)
43 (F)
Swimmers (sprint), tertiary 20.5 ± 1.9 (M)
19.7 ± 1.4 (F)
NR, USA UW    1, 2 8
Simsch et al. 2002 [125] Cross-sectional study 6 (M) Rowers, NR 18.7 NR, Germany Near infrared    1 7
Sjodin et al. 1994 [67] Cross-sectional study 4 (M)
4 (F)
Cross-country skiers, international 26 ± 2 (M)
25 ± 2 (F)
NR, Sweden DLW 4d DR (M)
5d DR (F)
DLW 1 8
Sundby & Gorelick 2014 [126] Cross-sectional study 10 (F) Runners, tertiary 25.7 ± 4.7 NR, USA BodPod    1 8
Taylor et al. 1997 [52] Observational study 7 (F) Swimmers, national 19 ± 2 NR, South Africa   7d DR   1, 2 8
Tomten & Hostmark 2006 [127] Cross-sectional study 20 (F) Runners, recreational/national 34.8 ± 1.7 (R)
26.0 ± 1.8 (IR)
Caucasian, Norway DXA 3d DR   2 8
Trappe et al. 1997 [70] Cross-sectional study 5 (F) Swimmers, international 19 ± 1 NR, USA   2d DR DLW 1 8
Vaiksaar et al. 2011 [128] Observational study 11 (F) Rowers, national 18.4 ± 1.9 Caucasian, Estonia DXA 3d DR   1 8
Winters et al. 1996 [71] Cross-sectional study 10 (F) Runners (LD), tertiary 19.7 ± 1.7 Caucasian, USA UW 3d DR HR 2 8
Witard et al. 2011 [129] Cross-sectional study 8 (M) Cyclists, NR 27 ± 8 NR, UK   3d DR   1 8
Yeater et al. 1996 [130] Cross-sectional study 8 (M) Cross-country runners, tertiary 21 [18–30] NR, USA UW    1 8
Zajac et al. 2014 [131] Observational study 8 (M) Cyclists, NR 28.3 ± 3.9 NR, Poland BIA    1 8
Zalcman et al. 2007 [132] Cross-sectional study 18 (M)
6 (F)
Adventure racers, national/international 30.9 ± 5.8 (M)
30.3 ± 7.8 (F)
NR, Brazil BodPod 3d DR   1 8
  1. Note.  Age is given as M ± SD or M [range]
  2. F female, M male, UE ultra-endurance, MD middle distance, LD long distance, NR not reported, RCT Randomized Controlled Trial, R regular menstrual function, IR irregular menstrual function, PLA placebo group, CON control group, DXA dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, BIA bioelectrical impedance analysis, UW underwater/hydrostatic weighing, DR dietary record, FFQ Food Frequency Questionnaire, HR heart rate monitoring, DLW doubly labelled water
  3. a(1) = preparation phase, (2) = competition phase, (3) = transition phase