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Table 1 Demographic, lifestyle, alimentary characteristics, and oxidative stress (by FORT units) of 144 study sportswomen, comparison between the 42 OC users and 102 non-OC users

From: Oxidative Stress in Female Athletes Using Combined Oral Contraceptives

Characteristic All athletes
(n = 144)
mean ± SD or n (%)
OC users
(n = 42)
mean ± SD or n (%)
Non-OC users
(n = 102)
mean ± SD or n (%)
p
Sport activity, hours week−1 9.2 ± 4.15 9.3 ± 5.60 9.1 ± 3.40 0.64b
Elite athletes (national/international), n (%) 27 (18.7) 7 (16.7) 20 (19.6) 0.68c
Age, years 23.4 ± 4.17 23.4 ± 3.62 23.4 ± 4.40 0.67b
Weight, kg 61.5 ± 8.69 61.2 ± 7.79 61.6 ± 9.07 0.86b
Height, cm 170 ± 6.81 170 ± 6.97 170 ± 6.76 0.76b
BMI, kg m−2 21.2 ± 2.20 21.2 ± 2.02 21.1 ± 2.28 0.78b
University education, n (%) 104 (72.2) 34 (81.0) 70 (68.6) 0.13c
Married or separated/divorced, n (%) 12 (8.3) 1 (2.4) 11 (10.8) 0.18d
Nulliparity, n (%) 143 (99.3) 42 (100) 101 (99.0) 1.00d
Smokers, n (%) 33 (22.9) 14 (33.3) 19 (18.6) 0.06c
Cigarettes, day−1 1.1 ± 3.05 1.4 ± 2.41 1.0 ± 3.28 0.06b
Coffee drinkers, n (%) 116 (80.6) 32 (76.1) 84 (82.4) 0.40c
Coffee, cups day−1 1.5 ± 1.14 1.3 ± 1.12 1.6 ± 1.15 0.13b
Tea drinkers, n (%) 104 (72.2) 34 (81.0) 70 (68.6) 0.13c
Tea, cups day−1 0.5 ± 0.65 0.7 ± 0.62 0.4 ± 0.52 0.018b
Milk, cups week−1 4.1 ± 3.68 3.0 ± 2.98 4.5 ± 3.86 0.012b
Chocolate, 50 g servings week−1 2.0 ± 1.91 1.3 ± 1.35 2.3 ± 2.05 0.010b
Bread, 50 g servings week−1 7.0 ± 3.51 6.8 ± 3.85 7.0 ± 3.36 0.62b
Rice, 80 g servings week−1 1.2 ± 1.05 1.2 ± 0.86 1.2 ± 1.13 0.24b
Pasta, 100 g servings week−1 3.8 ± 1.80 3.6 ± 1.50 3.9 ± 1.92 0.55b
Fruits, 200 g servings week−1 7.0 ± 5.36 6.4 ± 3.91 7.2 ± 5.87 0.87b
Tomato/eggplant/pepper, plates week−1 2.2 ± 2.08 2.6 ± 1.99 2.1 ± 2.12 0.12b
Fresh vegetables, plates week−1 7.9 ± 4.23 7.7 ± 4.22 8.1 ± 4.25 0.35b
Legumes, plates week−1 0.7 ± 0.84 0.9 ± 1.11 0.6 ± 0.67 0.17b
Cheese, 50 g servings week−1 2.8 ± 2.06 2.5 ± 1.79 2.9 ± 2.16 0.45b
Eggs, number week−1 0.9 ± 0.70 0.8 ± 0.73 0.9 ± 0.69 0.24b
Red meat, 150 g servings week−1 1.7 ± 1.14 1.7 ± 1.07 1.7 ± 1.18 0.82b
Total meat (any type), 150 g servings week−1 4.0 ± 1.75 3.7 ± 1.62 4.2 ± 1.80 0.26b
Sausages, 50 g servings week−1 1.82 ± 1.42 1.7 ± 1.09 1.9 ± 1.54 0.77b
Fish, 200 g servings week−1 1.1 ± 0.86 1.1 ± 0.87 1.1 ± 0.86 0.97b
Yogurt, 125 g servings week−1 2.0 ± 2.10 2.1 ± 2.12 2.0 ± 2.11 0.64b
Sweet cakes, 50 g servings week−1 5.2 ± 3.48 4.6 ± 3.74 5.5 ± 3.34 0.11b
Wine, 125 mL glasses week−1 0.8 ± 1.38 1.0 ± 1.46 0.8 ± 1.35 0.46b
Beer, 200 mL glasses week−1 1.4 ± 2.18 2.1 ± 3.13 1.1 ± 1.53 0.10b
Spirits, 40 mL glasses week−1 0.3 ± 0.57 0.3 ± 0.46 0.3 ± 0.61 0.62b
Total alcohol grams week−1 40 ± 49.9 52 ± 67.2 35 ± 39.6 0.25b
Supplement use, n (%) 34 (23.6) 14 (33.3) 20 (19.6) 0.08c
  1. BMI body mass index
  2. aItalian espresso coffee cups
  3. b p comparison of OC users and non-OC users by two-tailed Mann-Whitney test
  4. c p comparison of OC users and non-OC users by two-tailed Pearson’s chi-squared test, as appropriate
  5. d p comparison of OC users and non-OC users by two-tailed Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate