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Table 1 Some potential physical, biochemical, and mental-emotional signs and symptoms associated with the overtraining syndrome. Adapted from Meeusen et al. [3] and Kreher and Schwartz [4]

From: Athletes: Fit but Unhealthy?

Category Signs and symptoms
Physical Maximal and submaximal performance decrements
Muscle soreness/stiffness/fatigue
General persistent fatigue
Bradycardia and altered heart rate variability
Autonomic imbalance (including cardiac)
Disease conditions: asthma, thyroid disease, adrenal disease, diabetes mellitus or insipidus, iron deficiency with or without anemia, celiac sprue, hypertension
Biochemical Excessive oxidative stress/damage
Increased susceptibility to viral, bacterial, and other infections
Hormone imbalance
Reduced muscle glycogen levels
Mental-emotional Disordered eating
Disrupted mood/behavior
Loss of motivation
Reduced mental concentration