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Table 2 Regression analysis of significant covariates for clinical improvement

From: Image-Guided Hyaluronic Acid Injection and Knee Bracing Significantly Improve Clinical Outcomes for High-Grade Osteoarthritis

  OA grade 2 (n = 58) OA grade 3 (n = 98) OA grade 4 (n = 51)
Function index linear regression Parameter estimate P value Parameter estimate P value Parameter estimate P value
 Knee bracing +2.69 0.67 +2.56 0.51 +10.81 0.04
 Daily analgesics −5.58 0.38 −8.6 0.03 −13.94 0.003
Logistic regression (>9-point improvement) Odds ratio [95 % C.I.] P value Odds ratio [95 % C.I.] P value Odds ratio [95 % C.I.] P value
 Knee bracing 2.4 [0.66–8.81] 0.19 1.22 [0.45–2.22] 0.70 5.54 [1.14–27.0] 0.03
 Daily analgesics 0.12 [0.03–0.53] 0.005 0.55 [0.18–1.63] 0.28 0.12 [0.03–0.61] 0.009
Average pain index linear regression Parameter estimate P value Parameter estimate P value Parameter estimate P value
 Knee bracing +0.94 0.25 +0.30 0.67 +1.81 0.10
 Daily analgesics −0.59 0.46 −1.06 0.14 −2.15 0.03
 Physical therapy +2.11 0.004 −0.25 0.73 −1.30 0.22
  1. In addition to intra-articular HA injection, knee bracing significantly improved clinical outcomes with positive (+) effect on clinical indices at 6 months in severe (grade 4) osteoarthritis (OA) analyzed by both linear and logistic regression. In contrast, daily analgesic use was a sign of poor clinical response to treatment with worsening scores (−)