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Table 2 Online elite athlete mortality articles (n = 3)

From: Do Elite Athletes Live Longer? A Systematic Review of Mortality and Longevity in Elite Athletes

Sport/Country Authors N Key finding LE vs. GP
NFLa Baron and Rinsky [62] (NIOSH) (1994) 6848 NFL players had a 46 % decreased MR (SMR = 0.54); linemen had a 52 % greater risk of death from heart disease than the GP, and three times the risk compared to football players; players had a decreased risk of death from violence (79 %) and accidents (39 %); (players since 1959; death through 1991)
NFLa Hargrove [63] (Scripps Howard News Service) (2006) 3850 The heaviest NFL players were more than twice as likely to die before their 50th birthday than their teammates; players are generally not dying sooner than average, but offensive and defensive linemen had a 52 % greater risk of dying from heart disease than the GP; out of the 130 players who died before age 50, 1/69 players born since 1955 are dead, 22 % of which died of heart diseases (77 % qualified as obese) and 19 % from homicides or suicides; when compared to 2403 MLB players who have died in the last century, NFL players are more than twice as likely to die before age 50 (born since 1905) --
Mixeda Barnwell [64] (Grantland) (2012) 4582 12.8 % of football players had died (n = 3088) compared to 15.9 % of baseball players (n = 1494) as of 2007 (active from 1959–1988) --
  1. AD Alzheimer’s disease, ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, CVD cardiovascular disease, GP general population, HOF hall of fame, HR hazard rate/ratio of death, LE life expectancy, M mean, MLB Major League Baseball, MR mortality rate, NBA National Basketball Association, NFL National Football League; OR odds ratio for mortality, PL powerlifting, explained variation/total variation (coefficient of determination), RCS relative conditional survival, RSR relative survival ratio, SD standard deviation, SMR standardized mortality ratio, SPMR standardized proportionate mortality ratio, SW sumo wrestling, T and F track and field
  2. aUSA