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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Synchronized personalized music audio-playlists to improve adherence to physical activity among patients participating in a structured exercise program: a proof-of-principle feasibility study

  No music Music  
  Control RAS/non-RAS combined P value *
( n= 11) ( n= 23)
Socio-demographic characteristics    
 Age, mean years (STD) 66.4 (12.8) 61.5 (10.3) 0.25
 Male (%) 6 (54.6) 17 (77.3) 0.24
 Married (%) 7 (63.6) 20 (90.9) 0.15
Clinical factors    
 Diabetes (%) 1 (9.1) 6 (30) 0.18
 Past or current smoker (%) 5 (45.5) 12 (54.6) 0.62
 Body mass index, mean (kg/m2) (STD) 27.7 (4.5) 28.6 (3.6) 0.56
 Prior myocardial infarction (%) 2 (27.3) 5 (25) 0.89
 Hypertension (%) 5 (45.5) 10 (50) 1.0
 Lung disease (%) 2 (18.2) 4 (20) 0.90
Behavioural factors    
 CES-Depression score, mean (STD) 6.25 (8.6) 9.6 (8.9) 0.62
 Stanford self-efficacy, mean (STD) 80.6 (18.6) 86.5 (12.6) 0.37
 Cardiac self-efficacy, mean (STD) 76.4 (19.4) 80.1 (14.9) 0.62
 High behavioural riska (%) 5 (45.5) 12 (54.6) 1.0
Physical factors    
 Baseline VO2, mean mL/kg/min (STD) 18.2 (5.7) 20.3 (5.0) 0.28
 Week-1 volume of total activity, mean minutes (STD) 352.8 (408.5) 487.6 (379.6) 0.42
 Week 1 volume of vigorous activity, mean minutes (STD) 1.45 (2.1) 5.4 (15.0) 0.98
 Week 1 volume of moderate activity, mean minutes (STD) 105 (122.3) 162.3 (151.9) 0.31
 Week 1 volume of light activity, mean minutes (STD) 246.4 (295.7) 320.7 (248.1) 0.68
 Week 1 calorie burn, mean kcal (STD) 314.0 (359.4) 453.4 (366.9) 0.42
  1. Baseline characteristics according to randomization group: No music controls vs. Music playlists (RAS and non-RAS combined). RAS, rhythmic auditory stimulation; STD, standard deviation. * P value tests for statistical difference between two groups (i.e. Control vs. Music-Playlist RAS/non-RAS combined); statistical tests for continuous variables used the Kruskal-Wallis Test, while statistical tests for categorical outcomes utilized Fisher’s Exact Test. aDefined based on a BMI >30 kg/m2 or a CES-depression score of >15.