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Table 2 Data extraction from the included studies

From: Human tendon adaptation in response to mechanical loading: a systematic review and meta-analysis of exercise intervention studies on healthy adults

Source Participants Intervention Outcome
Reference Year Group N Sex Activity level Tendon Type of training Intensity Duration Reps Sets Weeks Times/week Stiffness YM CSA
            Location % Sig % Sig Location % Sig
Albracht et al. [15] 2013 EP 13 m Run AT Is (rep) 90% MVC 3 s 4 5 14 4 Ap (GM F) 15.8 *      
Arampatzis et al. [29] 2010 EP 11 m Reg AT Is (rep) 55% MVC 1 s 20 5 14 4 Ap (GM F) −5.2 - −4.8 - Free 1.3 -
   EP 11 m Reg AT Is (rep) 90% MVC 1 s 12 5 14 4 Ap (GM F) 17.1 * 16.9 * Free 0.5 -
Arampatzis et al. [28] 2007 EP 11 f, m Reg AT Is (rep) 55% MVC 3 s 7 5 14 4 Ap (GM F) 7.9 - −1.6 - Free 4.3 -
   EP 11 f, m Reg AT Is (rep) 90% MVC 3 s 4 5 14 4 Ap (GM F) 36.0 * 22.9 * Free 9.6 *
Bohm et al. [31] 2014 EP 12 m Reg AT Is (sta) 90% MVC 12 s 1 5 14 4 Ap (GM M) 24.8 * 17.7 * Free 5.3 *
   EP 12 m Reg AT Is (rep) 90% MVC 3 s 4 5 14 4 Ap (GM M) 53.9 * 45.2 * Free 4.4 *
   EP 14 m Reg AT Ply 90% MVC Approximately 0.26 s 72 5 14 4 Ap (GM M) 28.4 - 19.6 - Free 2.5 -
   EP 14 m Reg AT Is (rep) 90% MVC 3 s 4 5 14 4 Ap (GM M) 37.3 * 36.3 * Free 3.7 *
Carroll et al. [61] 2011 CG 7 (11) f, m Unt PT Co-Ec (rep) 74% RM nr 2 to 3 5 to 10 12 3 Free 13.9 + 18.4 * Free −1.7 -
Fletcher et al. [17] 2010 EP 6 m Run AT Is (sta) 80% MVC 20 s 1 4 8 3 Ap (GM F) 18.6 -      
Fouré et al. [71] 2009 EP 6 m Exp AT Ply nr nr 150 to 280 nr 8 2 Ap (GM M) 4.1 -      
Foure et al. [38,56,57] 2010a,b,2011 EP 9 m Reg AT Ply nr nr 200 to 600 nr 14 2.4 Ap (GM M) 26.5 *    Free 3.1 -
Foure et al. [43] 2013 EP 11 m Reg AT Ec (rep) nr nr 200 to 600 nr 14 2.4 Ap (GM F) 16.4 -    Free −1.5 -
Hansen et al. [62] 2003 EP 11 f, m Unt AT Run nr 30 to 50 min 1   34 2.4 Ap (GM F) 7.3 -    Free −0.3 -
Houghton et al. [39] 2013 EP 7 nr Cri AT Ply nr nr 4 to 10 2 to 6 8 1.9 Ap (GM M) −8.9 - −20 - Free 12.9 *
Kongsgaard et al. [24] 2007 EP 12 m Unt PT Co-Ec (rep) 70% RM nr 8 10 12 3 Free 14.6 * 12.2 - Free 3.3 nr
   EP 12 m Unt PT Co-Ec (rep) 16% RM nr 36 10 12 3 Free −9.2 - −4.2 - Free 1.5 nr
Kubo et al. [37,42] 2001a EP 8 m Reg PT Is (rep) 70% MVC Rapid 50 3 12 4 Ap (VL F) 17.5 -    Free 1.4 -
  2001a,b EP 8 m Reg PT Is (sta) 70% MVC 20 s 1 4 12 4 Ap (VL F) 57.3 * 50.3 * Free 1.4 -
Kubo et al. [25] 2002 EP 8 m Reg AT Co-Ec (rep) 70% RM nr 10 5 8 4 Ap (GM F) 31.3 *    Free −3.3 -
  EP 8 m Reg AT Co-Ec (rep) + S 70% RM nr + 45 s 10 + 5 5 + 1 8 4 + 7 (2×/day) Ap (GM F) 23.8 *    Free 3.4 -
Kubo et al. [63] 2003 EP2 11 f Reg PT Co-Ec (rep) BW nr 44 1 24 6 Ap (VL F) 15.7 -      
Kubo et al. [40] 2006a EP 9 m nr PT Is (sta) [50°] 70% MVC 15 s 1 6 12 4 Ap (VL F) 9.7 -    Free 1.5 -
   EP 9 m nr PT Is (sta) [100°] 70% MVC 15 s 1 6 12 4 Ap (VL F) 50.9 *    Free 1.5 -
Kubo et al. [87] 2006b EP 8 m Reg PT Is (sta) 70% MVC 15 s 1 10 12 4 Free −0.2 -    Free 0.3 -
Kubo et al. [88] 2006c CG 9 m nr PT Co-Ec (rep) 80% RM 4 s 10 4 12 3 Free 8.5 -    Free −0.6 -
Kubo et al. [59] 2007 EP 10 m Unt AT Ply 40% RM nr 10 5 12 4 Ap (GM M) 19.4 -    Free 3.3 -
   EP 10 m Unt AT Co-Ec (rep) 80% RM 4 s 10 5 12 4 Ap (GM M) 29.7 *    Free −1.2 -
Kubo et al. [60] 2009 EP 10 m nr PT Is (sta) 70% MVC 15 s 1 10 12 4 Free 71.1 *    Free 4.0 -
   EP 10 m nr PT Co-Ec (rep) 80% RM 4 s 10 5 12 4 Free 25.4 -    Free 1.3 -
Kubo et al. [52] 2010 EP 8 m Reg PT Is (sta) 70% MVC 15 s 1 10 12 4 Ap (VL F) 50.9 *    Free 1.0 -
Kubo et al. [72] 2012 EP 9 m Reg AT Is (sta) 80% MVC 15 s 1 15 12 4 Ap (GM M) 51.4 *    Free 2.7 -
Malliaras et al. [41] 2013 EP 9 m Reg PT Co (rep) 80% RM 5 s 7 to 8 4 12 3 Free 49.9 - 52 - Free 5.0 -
  EP 10 m Reg PT Ec (rep) 80% RM 5 s 12 to 15 4 12 3 Free 39.2 - 38.6 - Free 3.6 -
  EP 10 m Reg PT Ec (rep) 80% RM (Ec) 5 s 7 to 8 4 12 3 Free 80.9 * 77.3 * Free 5.8 -
Seynnes et al. [30] 2009 EP 15 m Reg PT Co-Ec (rep) 80% RM nr 10 4 9 3 Free 22.7 * 18.4 * Free 3.9 *
  1. Group (i.e., as assigned in the respective article): EP, experimental group; CG, control group. Sex: f, female; m, male. Activity level: Reg, regularly physically active and recreational sports; Unt, untrained; Exp, explosive sports (i.e., volleyball, basketball, handball); Run, runners; Cri, cricket players. Tendon: PT, patellar tendon; AT, Achilles tendon. Type of training: Is, isometric muscle contraction; Co, concentric; Ec, eccentric; Ply, plyometric; Run, running; S, stretching; rep, repetitive; sta, static. Intensity: MVC, maximum voluntary contraction; RM, one repetition maximum; BW, body weight. Outcome: YM, tendon Young’s modulus; CSA, tendon cross-sectional area. Location (i.e., refers to the anatomical structure that was used for the assessment of the tendon properties): Ap, aponeurosis; GM, m. gastrocnemius medialis; VL, m. vastus lateralis; F, fiber; M, myo-tendinous junction; Free, free tendon; nr, not reported. Sig (i.e., significance): *p < 0.05; +p < 0.01; -p > 0.05.