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Table 2 Physiological and functional adaptations to concurrent strength and endurance training

From: Strength training in soccer with a specific focus on highly trained players

Study Level/country/ n (age) Type of training D P Physiological adaptations Performance changes
Nunez et al., [13] Semi-professional/Spain/16 (28 ± 3.7) ST and ET - a sequence of general, special, and specific exercises incorporated in different training blocks. ET followed the time-line sequence of variable trajectory, medium extensive, intensive, and short intensive intervals. ST followed the sequence of maximal holds, fast holds, horizontal, and vertical jumps. ET block (2 sessions ET + 1 session ST) ST block (1 session ET + 2 session ST) 4 blocks of 12 wks S   ↑ 73% to 80% Probst test ↑ 11.1% to 16.2% SJ ↑ 8% to 8.7% CMJ ↑ 6% to 7% CMJWAS
Wong et al., [20] Professional/Hong-Kong/9 (24.6 ± 1.5) ST: 5 exercises; high-pull, jump squat, bench press, back half-squat, and chin-up; 4 sets at 6RM with 3-min rest between sets)
SE:16 x 15 s at 120% of MAS with 15-s rest
2×/wk/8 wks PS   ↑ 4% VJ, ↑ 5.9% T10m ↑ 2.8% T30m ↑ 19.7% YYIR1, ↑ 3.1% MAS ↑ 9.2% MASdistance
Lopez-Segovia et al., [18] Elite/Spain/ U-19 ET: high-intensity runs, physical-technical circuits and SSG, with maximal intensity during 4-6-min periods.
ST: jumps with and without external training loads, half-squats and full-squats. The speed of movement ranged from 0.8 to 1.2 m.s−1. ST complemented with sprint exercises with loads (5 kg) including change of direction movements, and 15- to 20-m take-offs with resisted sled-towing (10 kg)
2×/wk/16 wks PS-IS   ↑ 6.8% CMJ(20 kg) ↑ 5.8% Fsquats20kg ↑ 7.1% Fsquats30kg ↑ 5.2% Fsquats40kg ↓ 2.3% T20m ↓ 2.4% T30m ↓ 3.2% Tst/10-20-m ↓ 1.6% Tst/10-30-m ↓ 2.6% Tst/20-30-m
Helgerud et al., [37] Elite/Spain/23 (25; range 20 to 31) ET: 4 × 4 min at a treadmill (5.5% inclination) 90% to 95% HRmax separated by 3-min jogging at 50% to 60% HRmax ST: 4 sets × 4RM half-squats 90° with 3-min rest between sets 2×/wk/8 wks PS ↑ 8.6% VO2 max ↑ 3.7% RE(11km.h) ↑ 52% 1RMHS ↑ 49% 1RM/BW ↑ 3.2% T10m ↑ 1.6% T20m ↑ 5.2% CMJ
Jovanovic et al. [24] Elite junior/Croatia/50 (19) RST: 2 session a wk targeting the major muscle groups (e.g., legs, back, and chets) with workouts focusing power development (e.g., jump squat, squats, and bench throws) with loads up to 75% to 85% 1RM; SAQ: 3 sessions a wk, work:rest ratio of 3:2; ET: 1 session a wk, 4 × 4 min at 90% to 95% HRmax, 3 min rec 55% to 65% HRmax) 8 wks (1st 8 wks in-season) IS   ↑ 2.1% T5m ↑ 3.7% T10m ↑ 1% CMJ ↑ 0.8% CJS ↔ SJ, maximal CMJ
McGawley and Andersson [38] Semi-professional and professional players/Sweden/9 (23 ± 4) ET + ST Tuesday: RSA + speed endurance (e.g., 2× [7× (30 s on/90 s off)] ~95%, 3-min rest: reps 3 and 6 with ball) + 2nd session: RST (e.g., 3 × 5 cleans, 2 × 10 squats, 3 × 10 nordic hamstrings, 2 × 10 core rotations, 3 × 10 barbell rowing; 75%. 60- to 90-s rest); Thursday: (e.g., 2× [8× 45 s on/12 s off) agility/SAQ circuit] ~95% + 1 session functional strength (e.g., 2 × 8 lunges, 2 × 10 hamstrings kicks, 2 × 8 sideway lunges, 2 × 10 standing chest press, 2 × 10 crunches: 75%, 60 to 90s rest); Friday: (e.g., dribble track 4 × 4 min/3 min active rest; 90% to 95%, alternate ball) + 1 session PT (e.g., 3 × 4 Borzov jumps/3 × 10 core rotations; 3 × 6 bounding jumps/3 × 20 ball bounces; 3 × 15 toe bounding/3 × 20 fast shifting lunges) 3×/wk/5 wks PS ↑ 7.6% fat (%) ↑ 6% fat (kg) ↑ 1.5% lean mass (%) ↑ 3% lean mass (kg) ↑ 18.7% 1RM half-squat ↑ 28.5% 1RM lunge ↑ 97.3% iliopsoas (°) ↑ 5.3% hamstrings (°) ↑ 1.4% T10m ↑ 7% CMJ ↑ 1.1% agility ↑ 1.9% RSA ↑ 19.6% perf dec RSA ↑ 15.4% YYIR2 ↑ 65.3% chins ↑ 14.5% hanging sit-ups
  Semi-professional and professional players/ Sweden/ 9 (23 ± 4) ST + ET the same daily training but the inverse order (1st, the strength training and after endurance training) 3×/wk/7 wks PS ↑ 7.1% fat (%) ↑ 5.2% fat (kg) ↑ 1.6% lean (%) ↑ 3.6% lean (kg) ↑ 19.1% 1RM half-squat ↑ 19.1% 1RM lunge ↑ 165.2% iliopsoas (°) ↑ 10.3% hamstrings (°) ↑ 2.2% T10m ↑ 1.9% CMJ ↑ 0.9% agility ↑ 0.8% RSA ↑ 16.8% perf dec RSA ↑ 22.9% YYIR2 ↑ 22.9% chins ↑ 9.7% hanging sit-ups
  1. ↑, significant improvement; ↓, significant decrement; ↔, no significant alterations; ~, approximately; NS, not specified; F/D, frequency and duration of training protocols; P, period of the soccer season; ST, strength training; ET, endurance training; SJ, squat jump; CMJ, countermovement jump; CMJWAS, countermovement jump with arm swing; MAS, maximal aerobic speed; VJ, vertical jump; Fsquats(20-40kg), speed of movement during full squats exercise (range of the external load); T5-30m, sprint performance; Tst/10-30, sprint performance in predetermined split distances; VO2 max, maximal oxygen consumption; RE (11km.h), running economy (velocity); 1RMHS. one repetition maxim in half-squat strength exercise; 1RM/BW, strength per kilogram of body weight; rec, recovery; CJS, continuous jumps with legs extended; YYIR1, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level one; MASdistance, maximal aerobic distance; SSG, small-sided game; CMJ(20kg), countermovement jump (external load); SAQ, speed, agility and quickness; HRmax, maximal heart rate; IS, performed during in-season; RSA, repeated sprint ability; PT, plyometric training; perf dec RSA, performance decrement in the repeated sprint ability test; YYIR2, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2.